Scientific name - Actinidia deliciosa
Popular names - Kiwi, Kiwifruit, Chinese Gooseberry.
Distribution and Habitat - native to China in 1904 was 'tamed' for the first time in New Zealand. Today it is cultivated in several countries such as China, Chile, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, New Zealand and USA.
Description - dioica species. Leaves round-cordiforme, shiny on upper and pubescent on the underside, ribbed robust tomentos. Blooms in May-June, lasts 15-20 days. Fruit ovat-cylindrical; epicarp (bark) thin, brown, tomentous; mezocarp (middle) green. Seeds small, 1-1.5 mm, black, shiny. 2n = 174, hexaploida species.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - shade and temperatures up to (-10) - (-15) ͦ C. Not tolerate strong winds, calcareous soils, or clay sand heavy. Not tolerate late frosts.
Requirements - prefers soil rich in humus, pH 6-7, slightly moist, well-drained, in full sun or semi-shade.
Management - early spring is clipped after wilting flowers. To have beautiful fruit on a stalk is necessary to be a single fruit, like fruit room. Trimming branches short branches greedy cause harmful fruit production. Stalk raised on the trunk does not produce fruit. Branches of fruit a year will not produce fruit in succession, so be regular renewal. Fertile buds are the first 5-7 since the beginning twig.
After fructification to perform trimming of winter.
Trimming male specimens is immediately after crossing flowers, which provides maintenance bud increased in the branches. Winter is thin and dry stalk away.
It manages 20-50 kg / plant semi-mature organic matter and allby the rows. Land poor in potassium is added 0.2-0.3 kg / plant ash wood.
Irrigation is an important factor because kiwi plants like water, watering is done weekly in the summer with plenty of water, wash all the rest of the week but with smaller amounts.
The fruit is harvested in November, without peduncle as favors appearance Botrytis cinerea (mold). Fruits should be stored in cool place or refrigerator.
To improve the preservation of fruit can be applied to treatments based on propolis and cranes Equisetum (horse tail plant) with 7-10 days before harvest, so we can increase the amount of sugar in fruit, while protecting against fungi attack.
Propagation - by cuttings and grafting. Newly grafted plants can be planted in March-April to look after the land surface and were added sufficient amounts of organic matter. Distance between plants should be 4 mthe row and 4-5 m between rows, Thus, you ensure a smooth development of leaf and good aeration device, enough to not appear fungi (diseases) on flowers and fruits. Plateau on which lie should be 1.8-2 m high.
Diseases and pests - Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease. Attacked fruits appear in a gray canvas area, then complete rot. The disease can attack the whole plant in fruit stems, necrotic spots appear on lujerii a year. To protect itself from illness be applied acasta balanced fertilization, avoid the use of manure (manure), fresh, and forcing the excess easily soluble fertilizers.
Picciniastrum actinidiae (rust), Uncinula actinidiae.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - this form iregulata foliar necrosis, dark brown, surrounded by a yellow spot. Cancer is formed on the trunk as a black sweat closed, and leads to plant death. The bacteria can be transported by rain, wind, insects, animals and people.
Preventive methods for Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - avoiding sprinkler irrigation, ensuring good drainage and avoid water stagnerii, avoid injury trunk, disinfection tools that are used for alcohol skims to switch from one plant to another.
Cultivars - 'Hayward' fruit production without grafts, the taste of such fruits is considered a mixture of banana, strawberry and pineapple.
Properties and Uses-fruits of Actinidia species have large amounts of vitamin C, antioxidant and immuno-stimulant properties.
Curiosity - kiwi fruit are rich in vitamin C than lemons.
Kiwi fruit is the national icon for New Zealand.
George C. Khachatourians Alan McHugirdle, Ralph Scorza, Wai-Kit Nip, YH Hui - transgenic Plants and Crops - CRC Press, 2002
Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull - The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts - CABI Publishing, 2007
Larry Hodgson - Making the Most of Shade - Roda, 2005
RC Ploetz - Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops - CABI Publishing, 2003
Steve Taylor - Advances in Food and Nutrition Research - Academic Press, 2007
Trees and shrubs
Evergreen tree, 15-20 m high. Leaves simple, alternate, coriacee, limb oval edge gear, 2.5-5 cm long, short stalks. Flowers arranged in dense corymb, hermaphrodite, pentamere, white, 1.5 cm in diameter, calyx of 5 SEPA. Fruit capsule, containing 10-20 seeds.
Cyphomandra betacea - small tree, native of Peru and Chile, in tropical forests, at 700-2000 m altitude. It is grown in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and New Zealand for its edible fruit, or ornamental tree. Fruits can be eaten cooked or raw in salads and desserts. It is shown that the seeds and skin to be removed. Fruits contain protein, vitamin C and E, vitamin A.
Leycesteria formosa Wall.
Leycesteria formosa, originating from the Himalayas and southwestern China. The species cultivated as ornamental gardens.
Evergreen ornamental plant of the Theaceae family, native from Eastern Asia, its origin is still controversial, being considered by some as species indigenous from Japonia and, by others, from China. It was introduced into Europe by the Portuguese in 1542 and soon spread to Spain, England, France and Italy; into United States at the beginning of the 18th century, and in Australia during the mid 19th century.
Bellium artrutxensis sp.nov. Balearic Islands
Cardamine bulbifera - herbaceous species, perennial. Hailing from Europe and Asia Minor, grow on fertile soils, limestone, 200 to 1800 m altit., In association with Coryllus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Crataegus laevigata, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, ursinum Allium, Carex pendula, Hyacinthoides non- scripta, Mercurialis perennis, Lamiastrum galeobdolon.
Physostegia virginiana - perennial species, rhizomatic, native to North America, grows on wet pastures.
Physostegia virginiana - cultivated as ornamental species in parks and public gardens.
Wisteria sinensis - Chinese wisteria
Wisteria sinensis - is considered invasive in some places around the globe. In most cases become established in places where it is cultivated ornamental.
Where there is danger of becoming glycineinvasive is better to be replaced with Aristolochia macrophylla, Bignonoa capreolata, Campsis radicand, Lonicera sempervirens, Wisteria frutescens.