Scientific name - Actinidia deliciosa
Popular names - Kiwi, Kiwifruit, Chinese Gooseberry.
Distribution and Habitat - native to China in 1904 was 'tamed' for the first time in New Zealand. Today it is cultivated in several countries such as China, Chile, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, New Zealand and USA.
Description - dioica species. Leaves round-cordiforme, shiny on upper and pubescent on the underside, ribbed robust tomentos. Blooms in May-June, lasts 15-20 days. Fruit ovat-cylindrical; epicarp (bark) thin, brown, tomentous; mezocarp (middle) green. Seeds small, 1-1.5 mm, black, shiny. 2n = 174, hexaploida species.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - shade and temperatures up to (-10) - (-15) ͦ C. Not tolerate strong winds, calcareous soils, or clay sand heavy. Not tolerate late frosts.
Requirements - prefers soil rich in humus, pH 6-7, slightly moist, well-drained, in full sun or semi-shade.
Management - early spring is clipped after wilting flowers. To have beautiful fruit on a stalk is necessary to be a single fruit, like fruit room. Trimming branches short branches greedy cause harmful fruit production. Stalk raised on the trunk does not produce fruit. Branches of fruit a year will not produce fruit in succession, so be regular renewal. Fertile buds are the first 5-7 since the beginning twig.
After fructification to perform trimming of winter.
Trimming male specimens is immediately after crossing flowers, which provides maintenance bud increased in the branches. Winter is thin and dry stalk away.
It manages 20-50 kg / plant semi-mature organic matter and allby the rows. Land poor in potassium is added 0.2-0.3 kg / plant ash wood.
Irrigation is an important factor because kiwi plants like water, watering is done weekly in the summer with plenty of water, wash all the rest of the week but with smaller amounts.
The fruit is harvested in November, without peduncle as favors appearance Botrytis cinerea (mold). Fruits should be stored in cool place or refrigerator.
To improve the preservation of fruit can be applied to treatments based on propolis and cranes Equisetum (horse tail plant) with 7-10 days before harvest, so we can increase the amount of sugar in fruit, while protecting against fungi attack.
Propagation - by cuttings and grafting. Newly grafted plants can be planted in March-April to look after the land surface and were added sufficient amounts of organic matter. Distance between plants should be 4 mthe row and 4-5 m between rows, Thus, you ensure a smooth development of leaf and good aeration device, enough to not appear fungi (diseases) on flowers and fruits. Plateau on which lie should be 1.8-2 m high.
Diseases and pests - Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease. Attacked fruits appear in a gray canvas area, then complete rot. The disease can attack the whole plant in fruit stems, necrotic spots appear on lujerii a year. To protect itself from illness be applied acasta balanced fertilization, avoid the use of manure (manure), fresh, and forcing the excess easily soluble fertilizers.
Picciniastrum actinidiae (rust), Uncinula actinidiae.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - this form iregulata foliar necrosis, dark brown, surrounded by a yellow spot. Cancer is formed on the trunk as a black sweat closed, and leads to plant death. The bacteria can be transported by rain, wind, insects, animals and people.
Preventive methods for Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - avoiding sprinkler irrigation, ensuring good drainage and avoid water stagnerii, avoid injury trunk, disinfection tools that are used for alcohol skims to switch from one plant to another.
Cultivars - 'Hayward' fruit production without grafts, the taste of such fruits is considered a mixture of banana, strawberry and pineapple.
Properties and Uses-fruits of Actinidia species have large amounts of vitamin C, antioxidant and immuno-stimulant properties.
Curiosity - kiwi fruit are rich in vitamin C than lemons.
Kiwi fruit is the national icon for New Zealand.
George C. Khachatourians Alan McHugirdle, Ralph Scorza, Wai-Kit Nip, YH Hui - transgenic Plants and Crops - CRC Press, 2002
Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull - The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts - CABI Publishing, 2007
Larry Hodgson - Making the Most of Shade - Roda, 2005
RC Ploetz - Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops - CABI Publishing, 2003
Steve Taylor - Advances in Food and Nutrition Research - Academic Press, 2007
Trees and shrubs
Tree, 40 m high, truncated 1 m in diameter. Stalk, leaf stalks are brown and language violated. Petiole 1.5-3 cm long. Leaves elliptic, ovat-elliptic, 6-22 x 4.7 cm, protruding ribs on both surfaces, base cuneata, top acuminata.
Liquidambar styraciflua - a native of North and Central America, grows in forests of Pinus sp. and Quercus sp. 900 to 200 m altitude.
Acer platanoides - norway maple
Acer platanoides - used as an ornamental species in parks and gardens, but also the green street.
In the United States was introduced around 1700 in East Pensilveniei. It was introduced as ornamental species, the green street, in many areas of culture out of control and become invasive species.
Dovyalis caffra - kei-apple
Dovyalis caffra - fruit edible, with a high vitamin C content (80-120 mg/g), potassium (600 mg), and makes an excellent jam.
Shrub or small tree, 1-5 m height, stalk Rosietici, smooth or slightly ribbed or tubers, glauca, purple. Leaves with lamina narrow-lanceolata, lanceolata or narrow-oblong-elliptical, 8-21 x 3.8 cm, the attenuated cuneata, top acute or obtuse, petiole up to 5 mm long. Petals 2-3, 8.12 mm long, ovata.
Pachira aquatica growing naturally along rivers in Central and South America. Is cultivated in world wide like ornamental, in hedges or solitary. Resistant to drought anf flooding.
The seeds of P. aquatica are delicious raw, boiled or roasted. Young leaves and flowers are also edible. The seeds are high in protein and edible oil.
Gardenia jasminoides - Gardenia
Shrub or small tree, growing 1-15 m tall. Leaves glossy, evergreen, opposite, coriacee, oval or elliptical, dark green, 7-10 cm long. Large solitary flowers, double or semiduble, white, 5.12 cm diameter. Bloom from May to September.
Salix reticulata is a shrub alpine areas grows, from 1800-2700 m altitude in association with Silene acaulis and Dryas octopetala.
Thlaspi montanum L.
Thlaspi montanum var. montanum is toxic and cause death of larvae of Pieris rapa.
Thlaspi montanum var. siskiyouense is a serpentine endemic from southwestern Oregon.
Dombeya tiliacea (Endl.) Planch.
Shrub or small tree, 3.10 x 2.7 m, trunk branched, bark dark gray, rough. Leaves alternate, 4.9 x 3-7 cm, three-lobed basis cordata, margine teeth face bottom covered with fine hairs, stalks pelos, 1-3 cm. Flowers campanulata, 3-4 cm diameter, axillary or terminal, solitary or grouped in a raceme, petals white, obovata.