Scientific name - Actinidia deliciosa
Popular names - Kiwi, Kiwifruit, Chinese Gooseberry.
Distribution and Habitat - native to China in 1904 was 'tamed' for the first time in New Zealand. Today it is cultivated in several countries such as China, Chile, France, Greece, Italy, Japan, New Zealand and USA.
Description - dioica species. Leaves round-cordiforme, shiny on upper and pubescent on the underside, ribbed robust tomentos. Blooms in May-June, lasts 15-20 days. Fruit ovat-cylindrical; epicarp (bark) thin, brown, tomentous; mezocarp (middle) green. Seeds small, 1-1.5 mm, black, shiny. 2n = 174, hexaploida species.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - shade and temperatures up to (-10) - (-15) ͦ C. Not tolerate strong winds, calcareous soils, or clay sand heavy. Not tolerate late frosts.
Requirements - prefers soil rich in humus, pH 6-7, slightly moist, well-drained, in full sun or semi-shade.
Management - early spring is clipped after wilting flowers. To have beautiful fruit on a stalk is necessary to be a single fruit, like fruit room. Trimming branches short branches greedy cause harmful fruit production. Stalk raised on the trunk does not produce fruit. Branches of fruit a year will not produce fruit in succession, so be regular renewal. Fertile buds are the first 5-7 since the beginning twig.
After fructification to perform trimming of winter.
Trimming male specimens is immediately after crossing flowers, which provides maintenance bud increased in the branches. Winter is thin and dry stalk away.
It manages 20-50 kg / plant semi-mature organic matter and allby the rows. Land poor in potassium is added 0.2-0.3 kg / plant ash wood.
Irrigation is an important factor because kiwi plants like water, watering is done weekly in the summer with plenty of water, wash all the rest of the week but with smaller amounts.
The fruit is harvested in November, without peduncle as favors appearance Botrytis cinerea (mold). Fruits should be stored in cool place or refrigerator.
To improve the preservation of fruit can be applied to treatments based on propolis and cranes Equisetum (horse tail plant) with 7-10 days before harvest, so we can increase the amount of sugar in fruit, while protecting against fungi attack.
Propagation - by cuttings and grafting. Newly grafted plants can be planted in March-April to look after the land surface and were added sufficient amounts of organic matter. Distance between plants should be 4 mthe row and 4-5 m between rows, Thus, you ensure a smooth development of leaf and good aeration device, enough to not appear fungi (diseases) on flowers and fruits. Plateau on which lie should be 1.8-2 m high.
Diseases and pests - Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease. Attacked fruits appear in a gray canvas area, then complete rot. The disease can attack the whole plant in fruit stems, necrotic spots appear on lujerii a year. To protect itself from illness be applied acasta balanced fertilization, avoid the use of manure (manure), fresh, and forcing the excess easily soluble fertilizers.
Picciniastrum actinidiae (rust), Uncinula actinidiae.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - this form iregulata foliar necrosis, dark brown, surrounded by a yellow spot. Cancer is formed on the trunk as a black sweat closed, and leads to plant death. The bacteria can be transported by rain, wind, insects, animals and people.
Preventive methods for Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae - avoiding sprinkler irrigation, ensuring good drainage and avoid water stagnerii, avoid injury trunk, disinfection tools that are used for alcohol skims to switch from one plant to another.
Cultivars - 'Hayward' fruit production without grafts, the taste of such fruits is considered a mixture of banana, strawberry and pineapple.
Properties and Uses-fruits of Actinidia species have large amounts of vitamin C, antioxidant and immuno-stimulant properties.
Curiosity - kiwi fruit are rich in vitamin C than lemons.
Kiwi fruit is the national icon for New Zealand.
George C. Khachatourians Alan McHugirdle, Ralph Scorza, Wai-Kit Nip, YH Hui - transgenic Plants and Crops - CRC Press, 2002
Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull - The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts - CABI Publishing, 2007
Larry Hodgson - Making the Most of Shade - Roda, 2005
RC Ploetz - Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops - CABI Publishing, 2003
Steve Taylor - Advances in Food and Nutrition Research - Academic Press, 2007
Trees and shrubs
Eriobotrya japonica Lindl
Small tree, 5-10 m high, trunk erect, divide, tomentoase branches, erect and espana, bark gray-brown, smooth, crown open, umbeliforma in adulthood. Leaves persistent, alternate, simple, elliptical language-lanceolata, margine evening, acuminata; nervatiuni lecundare are thick and deep language that seems inflated between them
Syringa vulgaris L.
Clerodendrum bungei - ornamental species grown in parks and gardens and in pots but terraces. Leaves crushed leaves an unpleasant odor. In hot and humid climates become invasive.
Teline canariensis - shrub native (endemic) of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, grows at the edge of forests of Pinus radiata and Laurus canariensis novo in association with Neotinea maculata, Hypericum reflexum and Cystus sympithifolius, from 500 to 1500 m altitude.
Salix reticulata is a shrub alpine areas grows, from 1800-2700 m altitude in association with Silene acaulis and Dryas octopetala.
Cornus sanguinea grows throughout Europe, rarer in the north, in the thicket, forest edges and edges of streets, from plain to 1000 m altitude.
Saponaria officinalis - perennial species, rhizome cylindrical, highly branched, crawler, with sterile and fertile shoots. Originally from Europe and Asia, growing on the river, along fences, roads and crops edges.
Stachys palustris L. - marsh Jales
Herbaceous perennial, rhizome tuberizat, crawler. Stem erect, rarely branched, tetragon, dark pink-purple, with scrub edge stem, 30-120 cm tall. Caulinare upper leaves are Sesi, amplexicaule, narrow-lanceolata, evening and slightly wavy edge, basal leaves are short stalks.