Scientific name - Aesculus hippocastanum L.
Popular names - castanul porcesc, Horse chestnut, ippocastano, castagno d’India.
Distribution and Habitat - grows spontaneously in South America, Asia Minorfrom plain to 1200 m altitude.
Description - tall tree up to 25 m, with stem 1 m thick at the base, straight or slightly twisted, bark thick, dark, hang on plates. High crown, globular, thick, has lujerii glabra, thick, with large buds (2 cm), swollen, sticky. Large leaves are palmate-lobate, obovata, with 5.7 leaflets of 10-25 cm long, cumin, base cuneat, margins obtuse evening, the started inside rusty hairy, then glabrous. Long petiole is 15-20 m. Polygamous flowers, white, stained red by approx. 2 cm long, are trapped in panicule, erect, pyramidal, or ilindrice, 20-30cm high, open in May or June. Fruit is deshiscent, spiny, globular, of that. 6 cm in diameter, with 3 valves flashy, with large seeds 1.2 (chestnut), oblate-spherical, brown, shiny, with a bitter taste, are not edible. Fruiting annually in August in September. Longevity, 150 years.
Tolerances - supports trimming, the crown may be headed in different forms, tolerates a light shading. Less resistant to salinity of land and atmospheric agents, such occurrence causing rust on the leaves
Requirements - require deep, rich, light, sandy soil. Species not support acidofila limestone land.
Propagation - by seeds and ornamental varieties by grafting in occultation, between July 15 and August 15, the stock of 1 year. The seeds are planted immediately after fruit ripening as quickly lose their germination.
Pests and diseases - is resistant to frost, but is injured by drought, the arsita and smoke that attack leaves that turn yellow and is necrozeaza edge.
Cameraria ohridella attack leaves causing leaf drying.
Properties and Uses - is used in parks and gardens, the tree line, solitary or in groups. The flowers are bees, and seeds contain starch, protein, tannin, saponin and edible oil, which can be manufactured soap, technical oil, glue, medicines. Species not produce forest wood is of poor quality.
Bark and branches aremintele have astringent properties, antihemoroidale, vaso-protective.
Bark is harvested in March, before the plant to get in vegetation, from lujerii two to three years. Seeds are collected from their fall in October. Both bark and seeds cut in half is dried in the sun, and preserved in paper bags or cotton.
For hemorrhoids, is a decoction of 6 g of seeds in 100 ml of water, are washing, packing and local compresses for 15 minutes.
Flour from seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum fused bath water has an effect ofurgent, refreshed and tonificant.
Curiosity - in the last fruit was used for feeding, where it comes from popular name. Seeds are used to produce flour and, after roasting, a coffee substitute.
Trees and shrubs
African Sparmannia - shrub or small tree, native of southern Africa, as a species grown across the globe or outdoor ornamental pot.
Carpinus betulus - hard wood shaft with durable but less humid conditions. Suprta trimming and better suited for bonsai training.
Tree 15-40 m high, trunk 1 m in diameter. Subsesile leaves or stalks, stalks up to 3 cm long, glabru or glabrescent; language to narrow obovata ovata, ovat-lanceolata, 6-15 x 2.5-7 cm, margins evening, the round, top-acute acuminata.
Hydrangea - Hortensia
Genus includes 80 species, the most popular are H. macrophylla, H. arborescens, H. paniculata and H. quercifolia. Shrub or voluble species with opposite leaves. Flowers solitary or grouped in inflorescences type corymb, Raceme. Ovary compound, 2-10 rags, below. Capsule truncata. Seeds numerous, ribbed.
Papaver aurantiacum - perennial species, grows on limestone debris and rocky places in alpine and subalpine region.
Tilia platyphyllos - Large-leaved Linden
Tilia platyphyllos - thermophilic species, grows only in plain and low hills, Europe and western Asia.
Large-leaved Linden, used as decorative trees in parks, and street alignments.
Dasiphora fruticosa - deciduu shrub, native of Asia, grows on wet soils and wet rocks.
Physalis alkekengi - ripe fruits are edible, are rich in Vitamin C and has diuretic and laxative properties.
Silene bitlisensis O. Tugay & Ertugrul