Scientific name - Aesculus hippocastanum L.
Popular names - castanul porcesc, Horse chestnut, ippocastano, castagno d’India.
Distribution and Habitat - grows spontaneously in South America, Asia Minorfrom plain to 1200 m altitude.
Description - tall tree up to 25 m, with stem 1 m thick at the base, straight or slightly twisted, bark thick, dark, hang on plates. High crown, globular, thick, has lujerii glabra, thick, with large buds (2 cm), swollen, sticky. Large leaves are palmate-lobate, obovata, with 5.7 leaflets of 10-25 cm long, cumin, base cuneat, margins obtuse evening, the started inside rusty hairy, then glabrous. Long petiole is 15-20 m. Polygamous flowers, white, stained red by approx. 2 cm long, are trapped in panicule, erect, pyramidal, or ilindrice, 20-30cm high, open in May or June. Fruit is deshiscent, spiny, globular, of that. 6 cm in diameter, with 3 valves flashy, with large seeds 1.2 (chestnut), oblate-spherical, brown, shiny, with a bitter taste, are not edible. Fruiting annually in August in September. Longevity, 150 years.
Tolerances - supports trimming, the crown may be headed in different forms, tolerates a light shading. Less resistant to salinity of land and atmospheric agents, such occurrence causing rust on the leaves
Requirements - require deep, rich, light, sandy soil. Species not support acidofila limestone land.
Propagation - by seeds and ornamental varieties by grafting in occultation, between July 15 and August 15, the stock of 1 year. The seeds are planted immediately after fruit ripening as quickly lose their germination.
Pests and diseases - is resistant to frost, but is injured by drought, the arsita and smoke that attack leaves that turn yellow and is necrozeaza edge.
Cameraria ohridella attack leaves causing leaf drying.
Properties and Uses - is used in parks and gardens, the tree line, solitary or in groups. The flowers are bees, and seeds contain starch, protein, tannin, saponin and edible oil, which can be manufactured soap, technical oil, glue, medicines. Species not produce forest wood is of poor quality.
Bark and branches aremintele have astringent properties, antihemoroidale, vaso-protective.
Bark is harvested in March, before the plant to get in vegetation, from lujerii two to three years. Seeds are collected from their fall in October. Both bark and seeds cut in half is dried in the sun, and preserved in paper bags or cotton.
For hemorrhoids, is a decoction of 6 g of seeds in 100 ml of water, are washing, packing and local compresses for 15 minutes.
Flour from seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum fused bath water has an effect ofurgent, refreshed and tonificant.
Curiosity - in the last fruit was used for feeding, where it comes from popular name. Seeds are used to produce flour and, after roasting, a coffee substitute.
Trees and shrubs
Acer platanoides - norway maple
Acer platanoides - used as an ornamental species in parks and gardens, but also the green street.
In the United States was introduced around 1700 in East Pensilveniei. It was introduced as ornamental species, the green street, in many areas of culture out of control and become invasive species.
Schinus molle - evergreen tree, 3-15 m tall. Originally from Argentina, Bolivia and Peru where it grows from 0 to 2400 m altitude. Cultivated soil erosion, but also as ornamental species, or bonsai.
Angophora hispida Blaxell
Shrub or small tree, 4-5 m high. Gray-red bark at first smooth, exfoliating in due course. Leaves opposite, Sesia or short stalks, cordiform, 5-10 x 2.5-4.5 cm, pale green, pubescent. 3.7 flowers in a corymb, 10-15 cm diameter. Sepa free (dialisepal), green, petals free (dialipetal), white cream. Blooming in January. Fruit capsule.
Punica granatum - pomegranate
Capparis spinosa L. - caper
Undergrowth, with root wood and lignificate stems at the base, erect in the basal portions. Leaves alternate, two stipele turned into thorns, persistent or obsolete, short stalks, oval or subrotund language, edge entire, flashy, green-glauca. Flowers solitary, peduncle long in upper leaf axilla; calyx of 4 sepa green, Corola of 4 white petals, stamens many red-purple color.
Santolina chamaecyparissus - limbricarita
Perennial species, stem 10-60 cm tall, erect or pendence; nefloriferi stalk is green-gray-tomentos; lujerii floriferi are simple, without leaves before blossom. Pectinata-toothed leaves often to penatsectate. Involucre 6-10 mm wide, hemispherical, subtruncat or not, or slightly rounded at the base; bractei lanceolata-ovata, Carina, the interior with round top. Flowers arranged in the capital, bright yellow.
Caesalpinia gilliesii - a species native to temperate and subtropical regions of South America, grown on every continent as an ornamental species in parks and gardens, may naturalize in areas where the climate is favorable.
Acca sellowiana is a slow-growing, evergreen shrub, a native of South America, is now widely grown in the tropics and warm climates as an ornamental, and for its fruit. In late spring it produces quantities of flowers with proeminent red stamens and pinky-white edible petals. After flowering, the foliage can be hard pruned into any shape.
Corylus avellana - hazelnut
Corylus avellana - shrub, common in Europe and western Asia, from plains to 1,200 m altitude, increase in association with Acer pseudoplatanus, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Fraxinus excelsior, Lonicera xylosteum, Salix caprea, Sambucus nigra and Sorbus aria.