Scientific name - Aesculus hippocastanum L.
Popular names - castanul porcesc, Horse chestnut, ippocastano, castagno d’India.
Distribution and Habitat - grows spontaneously in South America, Asia Minorfrom plain to 1200 m altitude.
Description - tall tree up to 25 m, with stem 1 m thick at the base, straight or slightly twisted, bark thick, dark, hang on plates. High crown, globular, thick, has lujerii glabra, thick, with large buds (2 cm), swollen, sticky. Large leaves are palmate-lobate, obovata, with 5.7 leaflets of 10-25 cm long, cumin, base cuneat, margins obtuse evening, the started inside rusty hairy, then glabrous. Long petiole is 15-20 m. Polygamous flowers, white, stained red by approx. 2 cm long, are trapped in panicule, erect, pyramidal, or ilindrice, 20-30cm high, open in May or June. Fruit is deshiscent, spiny, globular, of that. 6 cm in diameter, with 3 valves flashy, with large seeds 1.2 (chestnut), oblate-spherical, brown, shiny, with a bitter taste, are not edible. Fruiting annually in August in September. Longevity, 150 years.
Tolerances - supports trimming, the crown may be headed in different forms, tolerates a light shading. Less resistant to salinity of land and atmospheric agents, such occurrence causing rust on the leaves
Requirements - require deep, rich, light, sandy soil. Species not support acidofila limestone land.
Propagation - by seeds and ornamental varieties by grafting in occultation, between July 15 and August 15, the stock of 1 year. The seeds are planted immediately after fruit ripening as quickly lose their germination.
Pests and diseases - is resistant to frost, but is injured by drought, the arsita and smoke that attack leaves that turn yellow and is necrozeaza edge.
Cameraria ohridella attack leaves causing leaf drying.
Properties and Uses - is used in parks and gardens, the tree line, solitary or in groups. The flowers are bees, and seeds contain starch, protein, tannin, saponin and edible oil, which can be manufactured soap, technical oil, glue, medicines. Species not produce forest wood is of poor quality.
Bark and branches aremintele have astringent properties, antihemoroidale, vaso-protective.
Bark is harvested in March, before the plant to get in vegetation, from lujerii two to three years. Seeds are collected from their fall in October. Both bark and seeds cut in half is dried in the sun, and preserved in paper bags or cotton.
For hemorrhoids, is a decoction of 6 g of seeds in 100 ml of water, are washing, packing and local compresses for 15 minutes.
Flour from seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum fused bath water has an effect ofurgent, refreshed and tonificant.
Curiosity - in the last fruit was used for feeding, where it comes from popular name. Seeds are used to produce flour and, after roasting, a coffee substitute.
Trees and shrubs
Bush, 60-150 cm tall. Branches green, thin, pubescent, with 4.12 edges. Leaves pubescent, with some softwood apuncte, leaves from the branches are placed 3.6 in each verticil, language ovat-elliptic, 8.5-16 x 6-9 mm, top acute, sparsely toothed, leaves are opposite dinsre top Lujerul, linear, whole.
Tilia tomentosa - silver linden
Tree with dense crown, rich, 30 m high, with branches erect, rounded. Lujerii annual geniculati, brown-yellow, gray tomentosi with buds ovoid, with two external scales equal, also felt. At first bark is smooth and gray, mature form shallow longitudinal furrows.
Ilex aquifolium is a shrub native to Britain, 8 meters high. Crown dense pyramid. Bark is smooth, gray, alternate leaves, coriacee, ovat-elliptical or pointed spinal rigid, acute, those tricky steps and with the lower branches of the PA wave the upper branches, evergreen, bright green, toxic.
Tree 25 m high. Trunk erect, branched. Ritidom smooth, dark gray. Crown broad, thick, tapered. Leaves persistent, alternate, coriacee, lamina ovat-oblong, acute, entire and slightly wavy edge on the upper side and glossy green color, on the underside is brown-rust, pubescent, ribbed central rib obvious; nervatiuni pinnate secondary.
Perennial species, 30 cm height, 60-90 cm diameter, forming a dense bush covering the ground well. Leaves linear-lanceolata, margin entire, shiny dark green, 2,5-4 cm long x 3.6 mm wide. Flowers white, 4 petals, blossom type corymb, 9 cm diameter, January-June period of prosperity. Fruit silicula, 7 mm long.
Schinus molle - evergreen tree, 3-15 m tall. Originally from Argentina, Bolivia and Peru where it grows from 0 to 2400 m altitude. Cultivated soil erosion, but also as ornamental species, or bonsai.
Acacia anceps - evergreen shrub, 2-3 m tall. Originally from southern Australia, growing in limestone soils on coastal sand and red-brown sands.
Thevetia peruviana - leandru yellow
Evergreen shrub, 6 m high. Stem erect, cylindrical, branched, smooth, green, presents latex. Leaves simple subsesile, alternate, arranged spiral limb linear, entire edge, top acute, glabra, 8-16 cm long.
Delosperma cooperi originated southern Africa. Prostrata or erect stem, grows up to 13 cm high and 60 inches wide. Leaves opposite, succulent, cylindrical or 3 angles, without stipule. Flowers solitary or Cime, terminal or axillary, 8 cm diameter, open purple, calyx with 5 lobes unequal, inferior ovary with 5 rooms.