Scientific name - Allium cepa L.
Popular names - akaakai, basal, onion, ceba, cebola, cebolla, ciboria, Cipolla, Hui Hui Ts'ung, Ku Kut, oignon de cuisine, onion, onyan, pulantic, pyaj, SAFA, seba, Z'Oignon, Zongnon, Zwiebel.
Distribution and Habitat - original central Asia, but was not found in the natural environment.
Description - herbaceous biennial, bulb white, gold, red or purple, 5-8 x 3.10 cm. Leaves persistent, 4-10, fistula, 30-100 x 3-20 mm. Umbela blossom persistent, erect, compact, rear obsolete, ovata, ± equal, leading to acute acuminata. Flowers small stars until campanulata, 3-7 mm tepale erect, white, yellow-green or purple, margins entire, top obtuse or acute, anther white, pollen white, pedicel 10-50 mm. Blooms in June-August. 2n = 16
Tolerante - moderate compared to acidic soils.
Requirements - prefer land with pH 7.5-7.8, fertile and well drained.
Onions are sensitive to fotoperioada, and long days promote leaf growth, which are directly related to the roots.
Management - is crop rotation indicated at 6 years.
Propagation - by seeds or bulbs, in a greenhouse in January or February, in the open field in April or May. The bulbs are planted at 10 cm depth and 23-25 cm between plants.
Pests and diseases - is susceptible to various diseases, Aspergillus, Botrytis. Pests are most commonly bite onions and tripsii. To prevent bites, onion is a spray of water and paraffin which is sprayed between rows.
Properties and Uses - bulbs are edible, have diuretic properties, combat intestinal fermentation, vermifuge, agents. Onion seeds germinateza best at temperatures of 18-27 ˚ C, but young plants prefer 16-21 ˚ C 10 ˚ C day and night.
Decoction of 3.10 g onions 100 ml water.
Externally, has emollient properties, infusion of 5-10 g onions 100 ml water are poultices, you can make and gargle.
Fresh onions, crushed hairs combat hair loss, fresh juice is very good against the stings of wasps and bees.
Epideriologice studies have shown that the combination of garlic and onions reduce the risk of cancer, particularly stomach and colon cancer. The studies were conducted on animals.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - onion is one of the oldest cultivated plants, in 5 000 BC
In ancient Greece, cepa eating in significant amounts.
Gary J. Kelloff, Ernest T. Hawk, Caroline C. Sigman - Cancer Chemoprevention - Humana Press, 2004
Nancy Bubel - TheNew Seed Starter's Handbook - Roda Books, 1988
Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) JWMoore
Shrub or small tree, 7.5-15 m high; ritidom thin, scaly, producing a scaly trunk. Leaves pungent rum, obovata to elliptic, 3-15 x 1.2-7.5 cm, acute to round at the narrow top, coriacee.
Brassica nigra Koek. - Black mustard
Brassica nigra is herbaceous annual native to Asia Minor, but is cultivated on all continents for the seeds. The seeds are used for preparation of mustard.
Herbaceous annual, voluble, mono. Strain pentagonal in section, 6 m high. Leaves alternate, 5-7 lobate, the cordata, acuminata peak or acute, margins iregulat needle, 5-7 ribs, limb 15 x 15 cm, 10 cm long, ribbed, hairy. Flowers monoecious, in axillary Cime, long-pedunculate, yellow, 8 cm in diameter.
Santolina chamaecyparissus - limbricarita
Perennial species, stem 10-60 cm tall, erect or pendence; nefloriferi stalk is green-gray-tomentos; lujerii floriferi are simple, without leaves before blossom. Pectinata-toothed leaves often to penatsectate. Involucre 6-10 mm wide, hemispherical, subtruncat or not, or slightly rounded at the base; bractei lanceolata-ovata, Carina, the interior with round top. Flowers arranged in the capital, bright yellow.
Cichorium intybus - Chicory
Herbaceous biennial or perennial. Stem erect, with branches hispida, geniculate .30 to 120 cm tall. Roots spindle, long on break leaving a bitter white latex. Basal leaves in rosette, petiolate, lamina oblong-lanceolata, lirat-pinatifide or toothed, 30 x 12 cm. The leaves are caulinare Sesi, alternate, oblong-lanceolata.
Herbaceous annual or perennial. Strain decumbenta - upward, often is wood based. Leaves alternate, entire or pinnate-sectors. Capital solitary and axillary. Involucre with bractei placed on 2-3 lines. Flowers tubular, orange. Ligula sterile flowers, yellow-orange, top with 4 teeth. Receptacle convex or flat. Acorn obovoide, densely-hairy.
Polemonium caeruleum - species used as ornamental plants in gardens with spontaneous or rock gardens. Are planted at 30 cm distance between plants.
Cyclamen persicum is a tuberous perennial species, originated in Persia. Cordiforme leaves, 2-14 cm long, dark green, mottled with silver, long petiole. Flowers axillary, solitary, 5 petals ciclamen reflected color, red, white, purple, floral stem of 5-15 cm tall, blooming from late winter to early spring. Fruit capsule.
Bush or undergrowth, 30-60 cm. Leaves petiolate, oblong-elliptic, entire, 25-30 x 7-10 cm, spiny-toothed, crenate or sinuous lobate, grooved records and white ribs. Blossom terminal or axillary, pyramidal spike. Flowers Sesi, yellow bractei large to ovata lanceolata. Calyx 8-10 mm. Corola yellow, 3.8-5 cm, corolla tube 3-3.5 cm, upper petal is erect, about 8 mm, biloba, lower petal is tri-lobate
Allium croaticum Bogdanovic Brullo, Mitic and Salmeri sp.nov. in Croatia
Gymnadenia conopsea - can be planted in parks and public gardens, on lawns or grassy rocks.
Gymnadenia conopsea - Gymnadenia genus name comes from the Greek words 'gymnos' = empty and 'Aden' = gland.
Hyacinthus orientalis - bulbous perennial with linear to lance-shaped, channeled, bright green leaves, 15-35 cm long. Is classified as an ornamental, and is native to the Mediterranean region. The essential oils found only in the flowers have been used in cosmetics and soap fragrances.