25
Mar
2009
Alnus incana (L.) Moench - white alder
Trees and shrubs | Magnoliopsida
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Scientific name - Alnus incana (L.) Moench

Alnus derives from the Celtic 'the lan' = near rivers; incana specific name derives from the Latin 'canuto' = white on the underside of the leaves.

Synonyms - Betula Alnus, Betula incana.

Popular names - white alder, Aulnat blanc, Grauer, Weisser, ontano bianco, mountain alder.

Distribution and Habitat - originally from Northern and Central Europe, the Caucasus, East Asia and North America.

Description - mano tree or shrub that can reach 20 m, with stem often crooked, crown with branches thick, upward, lush foliage, lujerii in young gray, pubescent. Bark smooth, shiny, whitish gray, the old copies, to the base with shallow cracks. Wide elliptical leaves up to ovatBy 4.10 cm long, 4-6 cm wide, rounded to the double needle and lobe, pointed, gray green face, white inside gray, furry, ready alternative. Laminated ribs are straight, neramificate to head. Flowers unisexuate in Ament, is formed in the summer and before the leaf opens, the following spring. After fertilization, the female form conulete fruit (strobili) small, Sesia, many grouped 4-8, in one place. Fruits are small samara pentagonal small, narrow wings, red-brown. Seed wings are equipped with air bags that float on water to help release.

Growth rate - fast, powerful and drajoneaza few lastareste, with longevity a little under 100 years, on average 50-60 years.

Tolerances - air pollution, smoke, drought and shading. Resistant to frost.

Requirements - species rustic mountain adapted to harsh conditions, with the season you willgetatie short, supporting good frosts at high altitudes the increase. Placements prefer light and moist.

Is less demanding from the ground, so the soil rich vegetand well, loose, and the soil compacts,

cold, on the contrary the limestone or acidic soils in bogs, or poorly formed, cruel. Hang in excess water and to soil drought.

Propagation - Seed sown in autumn, winter and early spring snow or by grafting to

ornamental varieties, rootstock is A. glutinosa.

Diseases and pests - Phytoptus rudis.

Cultivars and varieties - 'Angustissima' narrow leaves and iregulat incision, 'Aurea' stalk sheet are yellow, 'Bolleana' iregulat stained yellow leaves,

Properties and Uses --forest species of interest, used as a pioneer plant, because its rusticitatii,

emphasizing and strengthening bank valleys flowing water, degraded land, slopes fast, ravenele mountain torrents and river. The strong fixed drajonarea land erosion in areas with slopes împiedecand emphasized.

The wood is processed well, polished rims, has an average resistance to air and water, between 10 and 40 years, întrebuintandu to the production of plywood and sheets of chips, pencils, boxes, packaging products, turning. Tanning substances in the bark are used in paint, bark and fruits having tinctorial properties.

Species may be used for public green spaces, enriching the soil in nitrogen because the roots nodozitatilor and fertilizandu him by litter.

Bark is used against rheumatism, the Americans used to treatbad anemia, and diaforeica for urinary problems.

References

C. Colston Burrell - Invasive Plants Native Alternatives - Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 2006

E. Hulten - Flora of Alaska and neighboring Territories - Stanford University Press

Gary Stacey, Robert H. Burris, Harold J. Evans - Biological Nitrogen Fixation - Springer, 1992

Stubbendieck James, Stephan L. Hatch, LM Landholt - North American Wildland Plants - University of Nebraska Press, 2004

MM Grandtner - Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees - Elsevier Science, 2005

M. Forrest - Landscape Trees and Shrubs - CABI Publishing, 2006

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