Scientific Name– Annona muricata
Synonim– Annona bonplandiana, Annona muricata var. boriaquensis, Guanabamus muricatus, Annona cearensis, Annona macrocarpa.
Common name(s)– saua sap, zuurzak, durian blanda, atti, guayabano; corossol (Franta); Sauersack (Germania); nangka (Indonezia), coracao de rainha, graviola (Portugalia).
Distribution and Habitat– originates from tropical America (Argentina, Bahamas, Grenada, Guatmala, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, Virgin Islands, Zanzibar).
Description– evergreen tree, 6-10 m high. Trunk straight; bark smooth, gray or gray-brown, fissured with age; crown spherical; branches at first ascending, later spreading; stalk brown or grey, with small lenticels. Leaves alternate, 7-15 cm long, obovate-elliptic, glossy on top, the bottom glabrous; stipules absent; petiole short, 3.10 mm long. Flower terminal or lateral; stalks stout, green, 1.3-1.9 cm long, 3 sepals, small, 3 mm long, triangular; 6 petals yellowish-green, outer petals are wide, ovate-acute, cordate with peak acute, 4-5 x 3 -4 cm, the inner petals, narrow, small, 3.8 cm long, thinner, rounded, concave. Fruit 14-40 x 10-18 cm, ovoid, dark green skin with thorns meat white pulp, fibrous and juicy, seeds shiny, dark brown or black, oblong, 2 x 0.7 cm.
Growth rate– fast, starting with the 3rd year.
Tolerances– drought tolerate short periods, long periods of drought cause premature loss of leaves.
Management– require regular watering and fertilizing weekly (10% phosphoric acid, 10% potassium and 3% nitrogen). Mulcing necessary to protect the root system.
By cuttings or grafting, the rootstock can be used Annona reticulata and Annona montana. Juveniles when they can replant 30-50 cm high, are planted in 60-80 cm between rows and between plants in row 150.
Pest and Diseases– Bephata maculicollis, Ceconata annonella, Talponia backeri, Thecla ortygnus, Coleoptera sp., Diptera sp., Lepidoptera sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Properties and Uses– The fruit is a good source of vitamins B (0.07 mg/100g) and C (20 mg/100 g) and a poor to fair source of calcium and phosphorus.
Ivan A. Ross – Medicinal Plants of the World – Humana Press, 2003
S. D. Doijode – Seed Storage of Horticultural Crops – CRC Press, 2001
T. Kent Kirk – Tropical Trees of Florida and the Virgin Islands – pineapple Press, 2009
Trees and shrubs
Prunus serotina - a native of North America, grows on the edge of forests on sandy soils and poor.
Genus belongs to the Malvaceae, tribe Malvavisceae, which is characterized by a number of corporate sites is double that of carpelelor.
Dasiphora fruticosa - deciduu shrub, native of Asia, grows on wet soils and wet rocks.
Teline canariensis - shrub native (endemic) of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, grows at the edge of forests of Pinus radiata and Laurus canariensis novo in association with Neotinea maculata, Hypericum reflexum and Cystus sympithifolius, from 500 to 1500 m altitude.
Callistephus chinensis - annual species, 10-70 cm tall, native to Asia. Species cultivated as ornamental in gardens and parks.
Originally from Europe and western Asia, growing on wet soils and peat, from plain to 1800 m altitude.
Scrophularia nodosa - perennial species, grows in wet forests, rape and besides water, from 0-1800 m altitude.
Ilex perado - small tree, port pyramidal, evergreen. Originally from the Canary Islands, dense forests grow in the Aqua Garcia, in association with Apollonias barbujana, Arbutus canariensis, Laurus Azores, Myrsine canariensis, Ocotal foetens, Persea indica, Prunus Lusitania subsp. hixa, Visna mocanera.