Scientific name - Arachis hypogaea
Popular names - peanuts, arachidic, peanut, cacahuete, Erdnuss, groundnut, nocciola, pistacchio di terra.
Distribution and Habitat - originally from South America.
Description - herbaceous annual. Stem branched, 40-60 cm high. Leaves compound, 8-12 cm long, oblong folio-obovata, margin entire. Flowers yellow, axillary. Peabody, grow underground, contains 1.3 seeds. 2n = 40.
Tolerant - do not tolerate drought and calcareous soils.
Requirements - light soil, sandy, rich in organic substances, pH 5-6.
Management - fertilizers applied during growth. During the flowering apply calcium sulfate.
Propagation - by seedyou. Seeds is sown in April-May, to 5 inches deep and 10-15 cm between plants. For germination requires temperatures between 16 and 20 ͦ C.
Diseases and pests - Pseudomonas solanacearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria arachidis (necrotic spots, orange-brown), Alternaria alternata (necrotic spots, orange-brown, the ribs), Alternaria tenuissima (disease of the leaves, brown spots), Colletotrichum arachidis ( circular lesions or iregulate with gray-white center and edges brown), Aspergillus niger (disease occurs in the first 10 days after seed germination, attack hipocotilul), Thielaviopsis basicola (disease that attacks the roots, the roots are black, the mold and die), Botrytis cinerea, Macrophomina phaseolina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cylindrocladium and Fusarium solani parasiticum.
Properties and Uses - peanuts contain 26% protein, vitamin B, calcium, phosphorus, potasiu, iron and magnesium.
Peanut butter: Peanut fresh Toasters 250 ml, 46 ml and 2.5 ml peanut oil salt. It mixes oil and peanuts, then add salt.
2 cotiledoane white seeds were rich in oil and protein. They are sweet, oleaginous, aphrodisiac and tonic. Peanut oil is sweet, laxative and emollient.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - before Columbus, peanuts were unknown in the world. For the first time were mentioned in Spanish chronicles of the sixteenth century.
During the 1800s, peanut oil, has become an important article of commerce.
"Eating Goober Peas" - is a popular song about peanuts.
"Sitting by the roadside, on a summer day,
Chatting with my messmates, passing time away,
Lying in the shadow, underneath the trees,
Goodness how delicious, eating Goober Peas!
Peas! Peas! Peas! Peas! Eating Goober Peas!
Goodness how delicious, eating Goober Peas "
Frederic Rosengarten Jr. - Book of Edible Nuts - Dover Publications, 2004
Orient Longman - Indian Medicinal Plants - South Asia Books, 1994
Robert F. Nyvall - Field Crop Diseases - Wiley Blackwell, 1999
Bergen crassifolia (L.) Fritsch.
Herbaceous perennial forms a bush evergreen basal leaves, stems florifere up to 50 cm tall, dark purple. Leaves 25 cm wide, or elliptic obovata language, rim around the base cuneata, top obtuse, long petiole, 3-9 cm long. Panic blossom, flowers pink or dark pink open.
Nigella sativa L.
Nigella sativa - annual species, native to the Mediterranean, the Balkans, Asia Minor, Caucasus, western Asia, India and North Africa.
It was used by Greeks to treat congestion agipteni and nose, toothaches, headaches, abdominal pains, rheumatism, and as a diuretic.
Pelargonium australe - Muscat
Herbaceous perennial, 50 cm high, sparsely hairy, stems covered with non-glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, lamina ovata, ± circular, 2-9 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, 5-7 lobes, lobes Curl crenata edge, pubescent or ± glabra, 13 cm long stalks. Flowers arranged in umbele, 4.12 flowers pedunculate, 3.10 cm long, pedicel 1-2 cm long. Calyx lobes are 4.7 mm long, 1-6-8 SEPA, 8 mm long.
Thunberg grandiflora Roxb.
Perennials, voluble. Stem thin, green, 2 m height. Leaves opposite, language ovat-lanceolata, acuminata peak, the cordata, margin entire, lobate or iregulat needle, 15 x 10 cm, short stalks, 3.5 ribs. Blue flowers with yellow, white on the outside, 8 x 8 cm, arranged in bouquets with individual pedicel 4-5 cm long, corolla tube 3 cm long
Prunus serotina - a native of North America, grows on the edge of forests on sandy soils and poor.
Aptenia cordifolia Schwantes
Aptenia cordifolia - Prostate species, evergreen, native to southern Africa. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovat-cord, edge entire, 1-3 cm long. Flowers solitary, terminal or axillary, short pedunculate, 1 cm diameter, 4 sepa unequal petals united at the base, pink to purple, stamens numerous. Blooms in April-August. Fruit capsule, obconica, 4 valves, 1 cm long.
Drypetes natalensis (Harv.) Hutch
Small tree, 10 m high, branches edges. Leaves alternate, language narrow oblong or elliptic, round base, asymmetrical, margins deeply soirees, shiny dark green on the upper face, and green inside. Stipele linear, 0.1 cm. Flowers in bundles, appear in the armpit leaves and on old wood, male flowers are nested sepa 4.5, 0 petals
Herbaceous annual, voluble, mono. Strain pentagonal in section, 6 m high. Leaves alternate, 5-7 lobate, the cordata, acuminata peak or acute, margins iregulat needle, 5-7 ribs, limb 15 x 15 cm, 10 cm long, ribbed, hairy. Flowers monoecious, in axillary Cime, long-pedunculate, yellow, 8 cm in diameter.