02
Feb
2009
Areca catechu L.
Trees and shrubs | Liliopsida

Popular names - English: Areca, Areca-nut, betel nut palm, French: cachou falling within subheading, Arequier, German: Betelnusspalme, Guam: pugua, India: Pan, Spanish: catechou hand, Yap: bu.

Areca catechu - originating in eastern Africa, southern Asia and the Pacific Islands. Grows in tropical climates at altitudes from 0 to 900 m.

Areca, was first described by Theophras in file 340 by species cultivated in India and Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, and Philippines.

Areca catechu - a palm is monoecious, with a single trunk, grows up to 30 m high and 25-40 cm diameter. The roots are dense, fibrous. Fronde pinnate-compound 1 to 1.5 m long, 30-50 Folio, lanceolata, 30 to 70x 3 to 7 cm. Unisexulae flowers with male and female flowers on the same blossom. Blossom panic, very branched. 6 tepale flowers, Sesia, creamy white, fragrant, flowers are small men, 6 stamens, female flowers are 1.2 to 2 cm long. Blooms in November-February. Fruit drupe, ovoid, 5-10 x 3-5 cm, yellow, orange when they are ripe, pericarp fiber. Seeds ovoid, global, or ellipsoidal, 3-4 x 2-4 cm. 2n = 32

Growth rate - moderate, 0.5 m per year. Longevity - 60-100 years.

Areca catechu be confused with merrillii Veitch. Veitch has merrillii thicker trunk and red fruits.

Culture - annual rainfall needs Areca catechu are 1500-5000 mm / year. The maximum temperature is 38 ° C and minimum temperature is 16 ° C. Grows on clay-clay soils, well drained, grow and on calcareous soils. Soil acidity - pH 5.0 - 8.0. Tolerate drought. Prefers sunny exhibitions after the last juvenile period. Not tolerate soils with high salinity. Low tolerance towards the wind. The land around the trunk is mulceste adventitious roots to encourage growth.

Propagation - seeds germinate in 90 days after sowing, the germination rate is 90%. It needs 3-24 months before being transplanted in the nursery, and after another 1-2 years can be planted in place permanently. An adult palm produces about 8.12 leaves per year. Build starting from 4-6 years. Female flowers open first. Ripening fruit is carried out after 8.9 months.

Cultivation and varieties - A. catechu var. silvatica, A. catechu var. batanensis, A. catechu var.deliciosa, A. catechu var. longicarpa.

Pests and diseases - Phytophthora arecae, Ganoderma lucidum, Exosporium arecae, Gloeosporium catechu, xiphinema pins.

Medicinal properties and use - Philippines flowers are added to salads.

A root decoction is used to treat inflammation of the lips. The fruits are astringent properties, diuretic, digestive, aphrodisiac and anorexia. Fruit juice in small quantities has properties laxatives. Powder from seed is antiseptic.

References

Alfred Barton Rende - The Classification of Flowering Plants - Cambridge University Press, 1930

Bennett Alan Weinberg, Bonnie K. Bealer - The World of Caffeine - Rotledge, 2002

James A. Duke - Handbook of Nuts - CRC, 2000

Kirsten Albrecht Llamas - Tropical Flowering Plants - Timber Press, 2003

Narayan P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar - Plants and People of Nepal - Timber Press, 2002

Orient Longman - Indian Medicinal Plants - South Asia Books, 1994

Robert Lee Riff - Timber Press Pocket Guide to Palms - Timber Press, 2008

Shih-Chen Li - Chinese Medicinal Herbs - Dover Publications, 2003

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