Scientific name - Calophyllum inophyllum
Calophyllum comes from the Greek, means "beautiful leaf".
Synonyms - Balsamaria inophyllum (L.) Lour.
Popular names - Kaman, Alexandrian laurel, beach mahogany, beauty leaf, Bitaog, oil nut tree, btaches, daog, Dilo, EET, lueg, you Itai, undi.
Distribution and Habitat - originating in India, naturalized in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands, grows in coastal forests and beaches, up to 800 m altitude.
Description - tree. Stem thick, iregulat branched, 8-20 m high, small trunk with rough bark and dark, horizontal branches. Leaves opposite, dark green, elliptical language, 10-20 x 6.9 cm, the round, top round, margins entire, ribs parallel and perpendicular to the mid rib. Flowers in axillary Cimes of 4-15 flowers blossom is white rachides cream, white flowers, 2.5 cm diameter and 0.8-1.4 cm long. Corola consisting of 4.8 petals, oblong, stamens many, ovary superior. Blooms in January-June. Drupe fruit spherical, 2-5 cm diameter, green unripe and yellow-brown at maturity. Each fruit contains a single seed, 2-4 cm diameter.
Growth rate - slowly. Grows about 1 m high on the year of the first years of life, if conditions are favorable, then the increase becomes slow. Young specimens begin flowering after 8 years.
Tolerances - 8 ͦ C minimum temperatures, a wide range of soils, limestone, clay, shallow and those with high salinity. In areas with spontaneous growth, tolerate 4-5 months of drought. Tolerate light shade. Not tolerate frost.
Requirements - sandy soil, well-drained, pH 7.4-4.0. ͦ optimal temperatures 18-33 C. Exhibitions sunny.
Management -- branches are clipped to 2-3 years.
Propagation - by seeds. The seeds are cleaned of flesh, it looks like in 6 cm diameter containers, keep in semi-shade in the first weeks, and after 1-2 months may be held in full sun. The seeds germinate slowly, after about 22-38 days if the crust breaks seed. Fresh seed germination rate is 90%. Germinate slowly if planted fruit whole. New seedlings are ready for transplanted after 20-24 days of germination. Plantulele be tempered in full sun before transplanting.
Diseases and pests - leaves are attacked by TRIPS. Bactrocera facialis, Hemiberlesia palmae, Lamenia caliginea, Leptynoptera sulfur, Trigonops inusitata.
Natural partners and Garden - Barringtonia asiatica, Canavalia sp., Casuarina equisetifolia, Cordia subcordata, Hibiscus tiliaceus, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Pandanus tectorius, Terminalia catappa, Thespesia populnea, Scaevola sericea, Tournefortia argentea, Vigna marina.
Cultivars and varieties --
Properties and Uses - can be used as stabilizing tree land in coastal areas. For ornamental trees may be associated with such Burckella sp., Canarium sp., Cheekbones sp., Terminalia sp ..
Frcutele burned may be used against mosquitoes.
The oil derived from seeds is used for oil lamps. Can be used as massage oil or hair.
Oil of Calophyllum inophyllum can only use external (internally is dangerous), in treating rheumatism, ulcers, herpes and raie.
The seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum contain two important components in the fight against HIV that causes AIDS, and calanolida A calanoilida B. In vitro studies have shown that calanolida A and B inhibit HIV calanolida. They attach the enzyme that the virus needs to reproduce, so the virus is unable to reproduce.
A tree Calophyllum inophyllum can produce about 100 kg of fruit from which 18 kg of oil extractable.
Latex or leaf decoction is used for medicinal purposes.
The wood is red, moderately dense, difficult work.
Latex from the bark was used for poisoning rodents.
Not indicated plant Calophyllum inophyllum near buildings, because the root system.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - oil Calophyllum inophyllum been used in traditional medicine for healing.
Old from Tahiti consider tree Calophyllum inophyllum a sacred tree. In Tahiti tree is called 'you' and fruits 'tamanu'. Madagascar and Tahiti oil is more easily and more aromatic.
Trunchiu was used for building canoes.
Ahindra Nag - Biofuels Refining and Performance - McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008
Arthur W. Whistler - Tongan Herbal Medicine - University of Hawaii Press, 1993
Georges M. Halpern, Peter Weverka - The Healing Trail: Essential Oils of Madagascar - Basic Health Publications, 2003
Jeanne Rose --
LR Goldfrank, Lewis S. Nelson, Richard D. Shih, Michael J. Balick, Andrew Weil - Handbook of Poisonous and injurious plants - Springer, 2006
Richard Frankham, Jonathan D. Ballou, David A. Briscoe, Karina H. McInnes - A Primer of Conservation Genetics - Cambridge University Press, 2009
Robert Wilson - Aromatherapy: Essential Oils for Vibrant Health and Beauty - Avery Publishing Group, 2002
Laurus nobilis - on time and stay Greeks, laurel branches were used to make crowns for the heads of heroes, and to honor poets.
Cichorium intybus - Chicory
Herbaceous biennial or perennial. Stem erect, with branches hispida, geniculate .30 to 120 cm tall. Roots spindle, long on break leaving a bitter white latex. Basal leaves in rosette, petiolate, lamina oblong-lanceolata, lirat-pinatifide or toothed, 30 x 12 cm. The leaves are caulinare Sesi, alternate, oblong-lanceolata.
Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) JWMoore
Shrub or small tree, 7.5-15 m high; ritidom thin, scaly, producing a scaly trunk. Leaves pungent rum, obovata to elliptic, 3-15 x 1.2-7.5 cm, acute to round at the narrow top, coriacee.
Anthyllis vulneraria L. - head Turcului, harmful
Herbaceous perennial herb, polymorphic, rhizome. Prostrata strain or ascending, pubescent, hairs white, 5-40 cm high. Basal leaves, arranged in rosette, stems leaves alternate, imparipenat-compound, folio oblong-linear, foliole terminal is greater than the side glabrata or slightly pubescent on the upper face, lower face and Seto.
Ilex aquifolium is a shrub native to Britain, 8 meters high. Crown dense pyramid. Bark is smooth, gray, alternate leaves, coriacee, ovat-elliptical or pointed spinal rigid, acute, those tricky steps and with the lower branches of the PA wave the upper branches, evergreen, bright green, toxic.
Trees and shrubs
Liriodendron tulipifera - tulip tree
Monoecious tree, 21-24 m tall, bark gray, smooth in youth, later fisureaza lengthwise. The wood is light, easily worked, and adaptable. Stalk sheet are brown. Leaves alternate, tri-lobate, lobe treminal is emarginat-truncated.
Wisteria sinensis - Chinese wisteria
Wisteria sinensis - is considered invasive in some places around the globe. In most cases become established in places where it is cultivated ornamental.
Where there is danger of becoming glycineinvasive is better to be replaced with Aristolochia macrophylla, Bignonoa capreolata, Campsis radicand, Lonicera sempervirens, Wisteria frutescens.
Lagerstroemia indica L.
Deciduu tree. Global Crown-espansa. Body nodosa, latit basis. Ritidom thin, white-yellow, smooth, glossy. Decidue leaves, opposite or alternate, distances, almost sessile, lamina glabra, elliptic-lanceolata, shiny green on top, the green opaque on the bottom, edge entire, top acute, 7 x 2-3 cm
Rosmarinus officinalis L.
Evergreen shrub, 50 - 300 cm, stem erect, latita to the very ramified, in the lower trunk bark is exfoliating in longitudinal strips, dark brown. The leaves are coriacee, persistent, Sesia, linear
Evergreen ornamental plant of the Theaceae family, native from Eastern Asia, its origin is still controversial, being considered by some as species indigenous from Japonia and, by others, from China. It was introduced into Europe by the Portuguese in 1542 and soon spread to Spain, England, France and Italy; into United States at the beginning of the 18th century, and in Australia during the mid 19th century.
Herbaceous perennial, 50-80 cm tall, vigorous root-branched, cylindrical, 5-20 cm long and 1-2.5 cm in diameter. Strain fasciculated, erect, branched in upper parts. Leaves alternate, Terni-compound, the last segment with red ribbed, oblong-elliptic; foliolele are ongust-ovata or elliptic, 8-12 x 2-4 cm. 6.10 cm long stalks
Leycesteria formosa Wall.
Leycesteria formosa, originating from the Himalayas and southwestern China. The species cultivated as ornamental gardens.
Impatiens parviflora - species herbaceous annual. Hailing from northeast Asia, Europe grow in the forests of beech, river edges, from 500 to 1200 m altitude.
Chimonanthus praecox (L.) Link
Chimonanthus praecox - native species of China. Linnaeus described this species as the variety, as the Calycanthus praecox. In 1819 Lindley introduced a new kind Chimonanthus.
Deciduu shrub, 2-5 m high. Leaves opposite, entire, ovat-lanceolata, 7-20 cm long, thin, green, rough upper part, becoming yellow in autumn.
Aptenia cordifolia Schwantes
Aptenia cordifolia - Prostate species, evergreen, native to southern Africa. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovat-cord, edge entire, 1-3 cm long. Flowers solitary, terminal or axillary, short pedunculate, 1 cm diameter, 4 sepa unequal petals united at the base, pink to purple, stamens numerous. Blooms in April-August. Fruit capsule, obconica, 4 valves, 1 cm long.