Scientific name - Caltha palustris
Popular names - farferugine, tows, American cowslip, horse BLOB, Marsh MARIGOLD, May, populage, water goggles, cabudula, are ye me, Caltha des Marais, Butterblume, kalushniza bolotnaja, hierba centella.
Distribution and Habitat - grows on wet places, the water courses, marshes, from plain to 2500 m altitude, temperate Europe, Asia and North America.
Description - herbaceous plants, roots rizomatoase, 2-4 mm in diameter. Stem erect, tube or fistiloase, foam, and longitudinally striated. Leaves basal, long petiolate (5-20 cm); language cordata, margine crenata, wavy carnoas, top obtuse, bright green. Caulinare Leaves are similar to those that are based only smaller sessile or subsesile. Flowers hermaphrodite, solitary, axillary sfinished, 2-7, 2,5-4 cm diameter, peduncle 2-5 cm. Sepa absent. Corola with 5.8 petals, yellow-gold. Yellow stamens, arranged in spiral. Blooms in March-June. Fruit follicles. 2n = 32. Pollination made by insects.
Caltha palustris subsp. palustris - recurbate follicles.
Caltha palustris subsp. alkaloids - recurbate follicles in S which are shrinking gradually to the top.
Requirements - grows well in full sun, but the shade, on moist soils rich in humus, pH 5.0 - 7.0.
Propagation - seeds need 2 years to produce flowering plants should be seeded immediately after maturation. The division is rizomulor every 3 years, early summer, after the entry into sleep.
Natural partners and Garden - Agrostis stolonifera, Agrostis capillaries, Alchemilla glabra, Achillea ptarmica, Briza media, Centaurea nigra, Dactyllis glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Lathyrus pratensis, Lotus uliginosus, Lychnis flos-cuckoo, Pontedera cordata, Ranunculus sour, Ranunculs repens, Rhynchospora latifolia, oficinalis Sanguisorba, Senecio aquaticus.
Cultivars and varieties - 'Alba', white flowers; 'Flore Pleno', double flowers, 'Monstrosa plena'.
Properties and Uses - All parts of plant are poisonous couples.
The root is considered poisonous.
Other species of Caltha --
Caltha biflora - originally from Alaska and southern California and Colorado. Yellow flowers, two on a stem.
Caltha howellii (synonym C. leptosepala subsp. Howellii) - flowers with white petals and stamina galbne. Originally from southern Oregon and California.
Caltha leptosepala - oblong leaves, white flowers, 25 cm height.
Caltha natans - aquatic species, with stems and leaves all Immer water. Grow in the shade in waters 10-15 cm deep, on acid soils.
C. Burrell - The Shady Border - Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 2002
C. Greg Speichert, Sue Speichert - Water Garden Plants - Timber Press, 2008
Donald Leopold - Native Plants of the Northeast - Timber Press, 2005
Jo Ann Gardner - Herbs in Bloom - Timber Press, 2005
Narayan P. Manandhar, Sanjay Manandhar - Plants and People of Nepal - Timber Press, 2002
Buphthalmum salicifolium - herbaceous plant, perennial. Originally from the Balkans and Eastern Alps, growing limestone land in arid forests, wet meadows and sunny, from 200 to 2100 m altitude.
Cirsium heterophyllum - originating in Europe - Siberia, growing on peat bogs, on wet meadows, along rivers, on the edge of forests at 800-2100 m altitude.
Salvia nemorosa - perennial species, native to southeastern Europe, with an area richer in Carpatico-Danubian region, increases the arid grasslands of the plains up to 1000 m altitude.
Viola x wittrockiana
Morus nigra - mulberry tree
The fruit of Morus nigra contain 9% sugar, organic acids, pectin, tannin, vitamins A and C, minerals and other substances. Berries can be eaten raw or dried, in puddings, jams, or sauce.
Verbascum blattaria - Herbaceous biennial, glabra bottom of the stem and glandular hairs towards the top, grows spontaneously in the desert and the hot side of cultivated fields, rivers and channels, up to 800 m altitude.
Lysimachia vulgaris - perennial species, herbaceous with underground rhizome widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia, grows in wet environments, wetlands, side channels and water courses, from 0 to 1200 m altitude.
Physalis alkekengi - ripe fruits are edible, are rich in Vitamin C and has diuretic and laxative properties.
Aptenia cordifolia Schwantes
Aptenia cordifolia - Prostate species, evergreen, native to southern Africa. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovat-cord, edge entire, 1-3 cm long. Flowers solitary, terminal or axillary, short pedunculate, 1 cm diameter, 4 sepa unequal petals united at the base, pink to purple, stamens numerous. Blooms in April-August. Fruit capsule, obconica, 4 valves, 1 cm long.