Scientific name - Ceratonia siliqua L.
Synonyms - Cerotina coriaceae Salisb, Cerotina inermis Stokes.
Popular names - carobier, caroube, Carouge, algarroba, Johannisbrot, carrubo, pane di Santo Giovanni, Bread, Jean Baptiste, Alfarrobeira, roshkoboe, Carob bean.
Distribution and Habitat - spread all over the Mediterranean Sea Basin, in coastal areas and seasons, up to 500 m shares
Description - dioecious tree, 8 meters high. Body iregulat, erect with the latita. Gray-brown bark with longitudinal fissures. Vast and dense crown. The branches are fine young tomentoase become glabrata with timpu. Leaves persistent, alternate, paripenat-compound, with 2.5 pairs of Folio, ovata, coriacee, margin entire, glossy dark green on top, the green-gray on the underside, rahisuit is reddish, woody at the base. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexuate their joint erect inflorescences, raceme. Blooms in May-November. Fruit pods indehiscenta, 10-20 cm long, Pendente, at first green and then dark brown, glossy at maturity, flattened, fleshy. Longevity - 500 years.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - drought and temperatures up to -7 ° C. Young plants are sensitive to frost.
Requirements - poor soils.
Management - after the tree is not well stabilized skims needs. Fungicides should be applied in rainy seasons, being higher risk of fungus.
Propagation - by seeds. To stimulate germination can use hot water, or seed stratification. Ceratonia siliqua it can multiply and theseedlings, drajoni and grafting.
Diseases and pests - fungi.
Properties and Uses - fruits are edible. Produce about 200-1300 kg of fruit per year. The fruits contain 30-40% sugars, amino acids 35%, 7% protein, fats, tannins and mineral salts. The wood is hard, hard, homogeneous, reddish color becomes dark red with age.
Bark of branches, leaves, fruits and seeds have astringent properties, antidiareice, softeners, dietary, antiseptic.
Bark is taken in February-March, the branches of several inches in diameter. Leaves collected in April-May, culegandu them all the stalks. Fruits are collected in August-September, at full maturity.
Bark is cut into pieces of 5-10 cm and dried in the sun, the leaves are dried in the shade, the fruit is dried in the sun and break small pieces to extract the seeds. The leaves and bark are preserved in paper bags, fruits and seeds are preservedin glass containers.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua is used as a component of dietary products with fewer calories. Non-filtered decoction obtained from flour fruit is astringent antidiareic useful in cases of infection in childhood disorders, gastroentrite, enteritis and colic.
Current studies showed that Ceratonia siliqua absorbs toxins from intestinal infections, and acts in the intestine that the balance of intestinal flora. The leaves and bark are rich in tannins.
Internal use - to the irritation of the mouth and intestine. Decoction of 5 g of flour of fruits in 100 ml water. A cup or a cup of tea, depending on age, two or three times a day.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua, one or two hands, in water bath emollient effect, moisturizing the dry skin. Semifluide gelatins prepared with 3% of seed flour lAST to swell n little water can be used as hydrating and soothing facial mask.
Ceratonia siliqua tree may be used to combat soil erosion and forest protection as a decorative tree, solitary or in alignment.
Curiosity - supposed to St. John the Baptist in the wilderness, ate beans from Cerotina siliqua. In some countries, dry beans are sold as the bread of St. John.
George A. Burdock - Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives - CRC Press, 1997
James A. Duke, Michael Castleman, Alice Feinstein - The Green Pharmacy - St. Martin's Press, 1997
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e Illustrate per Riconoscere e Usare le Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Lycium barbarum - sea of fencing
Thorny shrub, 1-3 m high, stems Pendente .. Leaves alternate, glabra, short stalks, language ovat-elliptic, top acute, base cuneata, margins entire, 1-5.5 x 0.5-1.5 cm. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary, solitary or in groups, calyx 0.3-0.4 cm long, 5-lobed or consonant, Corola infundibuliforma, 1-1.2 cm, pale purple, petals strong reflexes
Ilex aquifolium is a shrub native to Britain, 8 meters high. Crown dense pyramid. Bark is smooth, gray, alternate leaves, coriacee, ovat-elliptical or pointed spinal rigid, acute, those tricky steps and with the lower branches of the PA wave the upper branches, evergreen, bright green, toxic.
Melia azedarach L.
Name the genre, Melia, derived from Greek and 'azedarach', the Persian word and means 'noble trees'.
Popular name: English: bread tree, Persian lilac, China berry; Nepal: bakaino, Tibet: smag sing.
Distrubuire - in Nepal at around 700-1700 m altitude village in Iran Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan and China.
Trees and shrubs
Prunus serotina - a native of North America, grows on the edge of forests on sandy soils and poor.
Cyphomandra betacea - small tree, native of Peru and Chile, in tropical forests, at 700-2000 m altitude. It is grown in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and New Zealand for its edible fruit, or ornamental tree. Fruits can be eaten cooked or raw in salads and desserts. It is shown that the seeds and skin to be removed. Fruits contain protein, vitamin C and E, vitamin A.
Wisteria sinensis - Chinese wisteria
Wisteria sinensis - is considered invasive in some places around the globe. In most cases become established in places where it is cultivated ornamental.
Where there is danger of becoming glycineinvasive is better to be replaced with Aristolochia macrophylla, Bignonoa capreolata, Campsis radicand, Lonicera sempervirens, Wisteria frutescens.
Bush single, thorny, 2-4 m high. Branches long, arched, with many thorns collected 3; in young yellow, then brown, yellow-gray in old age. Yellow Wood. Leaves simple, outdated, short stalks; oblung language, dark green, glossy on top, the more open on the underside, edge finely toothed, are inserted into the beam to ascela thorns.
Liana Wood, single, semi-evergreen, perennial. Strain gray-brown with prominent lenticele. Leaves alternate, palmately-compound, 5 folio ribbed stipelate. Oblonga call to Foliolele ovat-elliptic, the round, ribbed 4.5 to 10 cm long. Raceme axillary blossom, clocks, male flowers are arranged terminal
Genus was created by Portuguese botanist João de Loureiro (1717-1791) in the 1790 Flora Cochinchinensis for Campsis grandiflora. Linne named species with TECOM radicans and Thunberg gave the name of Bignonia radicans.
Malus floribunda Siebold
Deciduu tree of 4.10 m high, native of Japan. Bark smooth, red-brown to gray on older branches is gray-brown. Floriferi buds are red. Leaves ovat-elliptic, alternate, deeply marigini soirees, ribbed, dark green in summer, yellow fall, 4-8 cm long, pinnate nervatiune.
Tree 15-40 m high, trunk 1 m in diameter. Subsesile leaves or stalks, stalks up to 3 cm long, glabru or glabrescent; language to narrow obovata ovata, ovat-lanceolata, 6-15 x 2.5-7 cm, margins evening, the round, top-acute acuminata.
Tree, 40 m high, truncated 1 m in diameter. Stalk, leaf stalks are brown and language violated. Petiole 1.5-3 cm long. Leaves elliptic, ovat-elliptic, 6-22 x 4.7 cm, protruding ribs on both surfaces, base cuneata, top acuminata.