Scientific name - Ceratonia siliqua L.
Synonyms - Cerotina coriaceae Salisb, Cerotina inermis Stokes.
Popular names - carobier, caroube, Carouge, algarroba, Johannisbrot, carrubo, pane di Santo Giovanni, Bread, Jean Baptiste, Alfarrobeira, roshkoboe, Carob bean.
Distribution and Habitat - spread all over the Mediterranean Sea Basin, in coastal areas and seasons, up to 500 m shares
Description - dioecious tree, 8 meters high. Body iregulat, erect with the latita. Gray-brown bark with longitudinal fissures. Vast and dense crown. The branches are fine young tomentoase become glabrata with timpu. Leaves persistent, alternate, paripenat-compound, with 2.5 pairs of Folio, ovata, coriacee, margin entire, glossy dark green on top, the green-gray on the underside, rahisuit is reddish, woody at the base. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexuate their joint erect inflorescences, raceme. Blooms in May-November. Fruit pods indehiscenta, 10-20 cm long, Pendente, at first green and then dark brown, glossy at maturity, flattened, fleshy. Longevity - 500 years.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - drought and temperatures up to -7 ° C. Young plants are sensitive to frost.
Requirements - poor soils.
Management - after the tree is not well stabilized skims needs. Fungicides should be applied in rainy seasons, being higher risk of fungus.
Propagation - by seeds. To stimulate germination can use hot water, or seed stratification. Ceratonia siliqua it can multiply and theseedlings, drajoni and grafting.
Diseases and pests - fungi.
Properties and Uses - fruits are edible. Produce about 200-1300 kg of fruit per year. The fruits contain 30-40% sugars, amino acids 35%, 7% protein, fats, tannins and mineral salts. The wood is hard, hard, homogeneous, reddish color becomes dark red with age.
Bark of branches, leaves, fruits and seeds have astringent properties, antidiareice, softeners, dietary, antiseptic.
Bark is taken in February-March, the branches of several inches in diameter. Leaves collected in April-May, culegandu them all the stalks. Fruits are collected in August-September, at full maturity.
Bark is cut into pieces of 5-10 cm and dried in the sun, the leaves are dried in the shade, the fruit is dried in the sun and break small pieces to extract the seeds. The leaves and bark are preserved in paper bags, fruits and seeds are preservedin glass containers.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua is used as a component of dietary products with fewer calories. Non-filtered decoction obtained from flour fruit is astringent antidiareic useful in cases of infection in childhood disorders, gastroentrite, enteritis and colic.
Current studies showed that Ceratonia siliqua absorbs toxins from intestinal infections, and acts in the intestine that the balance of intestinal flora. The leaves and bark are rich in tannins.
Internal use - to the irritation of the mouth and intestine. Decoction of 5 g of flour of fruits in 100 ml water. A cup or a cup of tea, depending on age, two or three times a day.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua, one or two hands, in water bath emollient effect, moisturizing the dry skin. Semifluide gelatins prepared with 3% of seed flour lAST to swell n little water can be used as hydrating and soothing facial mask.
Ceratonia siliqua tree may be used to combat soil erosion and forest protection as a decorative tree, solitary or in alignment.
Curiosity - supposed to St. John the Baptist in the wilderness, ate beans from Cerotina siliqua. In some countries, dry beans are sold as the bread of St. John.
George A. Burdock - Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives - CRC Press, 1997
James A. Duke, Michael Castleman, Alice Feinstein - The Green Pharmacy - St. Martin's Press, 1997
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e Illustrate per Riconoscere e Usare le Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Evergreen tree, 15-20 m high. Leaves simple, alternate, coriacee, limb oval edge gear, 2.5-5 cm long, short stalks. Flowers arranged in dense corymb, hermaphrodite, pentamere, white, 1.5 cm in diameter, calyx of 5 SEPA. Fruit capsule, containing 10-20 seeds.
Brassica nigra Koek. - Black mustard
Brassica nigra is herbaceous annual native to Asia Minor, but is cultivated on all continents for the seeds. The seeds are used for preparation of mustard.
Acanthus mollis - Bear's Breeches
Native of the Mediterranean area, grows in gardens like ornamentals. Flower can be over 1.8 m tall, the purple-pink bracts contrasting with the white flowers. Prefer shelter and deep, moist soil.
Stem very thin, erect, branched, finely pubescent, 15-45 cm high. Leaves ovat until obovata-oblong, ribbed, few soirees, top obtuse, base narrow, glabra, slightly pubescent, thin, upper leaves are smaller. Flowers in bunches, axillary, pedicel pubescent, less than or equal to calyx, calyx pubescent, lobes 3 short and 2 longer lobes. Corola white or blue-violet. Blooms in July-September.
Trees and shrubs
Abutilon darwinii - ornamental shrub originating in S Brazil. In hot climates are grown as ornamental plants in parks and gardens in cold climates are grown in pots for indoor or greenhouse.
Cyphomandra betacea - small tree, native of Peru and Chile, in tropical forests, at 700-2000 m altitude. It is grown in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and New Zealand for its edible fruit, or ornamental tree. Fruits can be eaten cooked or raw in salads and desserts. It is shown that the seeds and skin to be removed. Fruits contain protein, vitamin C and E, vitamin A.
Helianthemum nummularium - Rock Rose
Scientific name, Helianthemum numularium, derived from the Greek Helios = sun and the Latin word indicating the currency, numumus = currency, because the flowers that sparkle in sunlight like a golden coin.
Tree. Stem thick, iregulat branched, 8-20 m high, small trunk with rough bark and dark, horizontal branches. Leaves opposite, dark green, elliptical language, 10-20 x 6.9 cm, the round, top round, margins entire, ribs parallel and perpendicular to the mid rib. Flowers in axillary Cime of 4-15 flowers blossom is white rachides cream, white flowers, 2.5 cm diameter and 0.8-1.4 cm long.
Leycesteria formosa Wall.
Leycesteria formosa, originating from the Himalayas and southwestern China. The species cultivated as ornamental gardens.
Digitalis purpurea - ornamental species, the size and elegant in almost any soil type and situation.
Digitalis purpurea digitalina contains a powerful drug used for heart disease. London was introduced in the 1650s in the pharmacopoeias.
Calycanthus floridus L.
Shrub 1.8-4 m tall, multiple stems, erect, clocks the fruit. Buds small, round, naked, brown-pubescent. Scaorta smooth lenticele, by burning aromatic, dark gray-brown. Leaves opposite, decidue, simple ovata to elliptic, entire, aromatic if they are broken, shiny, dense tomentoase inside, spring green, autumn is yellow or yellow-versa.
Portulaca grandiflora - annual species, succulent, native to Brazil. Can be used in parks and gardens as ornamental species for borders or pots on terraces species for sunny.