Scientific name - Ceratonia siliqua L.
Synonyms - Cerotina coriaceae Salisb, Cerotina inermis Stokes.
Popular names - carobier, caroube, Carouge, algarroba, Johannisbrot, carrubo, pane di Santo Giovanni, Bread, Jean Baptiste, Alfarrobeira, roshkoboe, Carob bean.
Distribution and Habitat - spread all over the Mediterranean Sea Basin, in coastal areas and seasons, up to 500 m shares
Description - dioecious tree, 8 meters high. Body iregulat, erect with the latita. Gray-brown bark with longitudinal fissures. Vast and dense crown. The branches are fine young tomentoase become glabrata with timpu. Leaves persistent, alternate, paripenat-compound, with 2.5 pairs of Folio, ovata, coriacee, margin entire, glossy dark green on top, the green-gray on the underside, rahisuit is reddish, woody at the base. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexuate their joint erect inflorescences, raceme. Blooms in May-November. Fruit pods indehiscenta, 10-20 cm long, Pendente, at first green and then dark brown, glossy at maturity, flattened, fleshy. Longevity - 500 years.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - drought and temperatures up to -7 ° C. Young plants are sensitive to frost.
Requirements - poor soils.
Management - after the tree is not well stabilized skims needs. Fungicides should be applied in rainy seasons, being higher risk of fungus.
Propagation - by seeds. To stimulate germination can use hot water, or seed stratification. Ceratonia siliqua it can multiply and theseedlings, drajoni and grafting.
Diseases and pests - fungi.
Properties and Uses - fruits are edible. Produce about 200-1300 kg of fruit per year. The fruits contain 30-40% sugars, amino acids 35%, 7% protein, fats, tannins and mineral salts. The wood is hard, hard, homogeneous, reddish color becomes dark red with age.
Bark of branches, leaves, fruits and seeds have astringent properties, antidiareice, softeners, dietary, antiseptic.
Bark is taken in February-March, the branches of several inches in diameter. Leaves collected in April-May, culegandu them all the stalks. Fruits are collected in August-September, at full maturity.
Bark is cut into pieces of 5-10 cm and dried in the sun, the leaves are dried in the shade, the fruit is dried in the sun and break small pieces to extract the seeds. The leaves and bark are preserved in paper bags, fruits and seeds are preservedin glass containers.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua is used as a component of dietary products with fewer calories. Non-filtered decoction obtained from flour fruit is astringent antidiareic useful in cases of infection in childhood disorders, gastroentrite, enteritis and colic.
Current studies showed that Ceratonia siliqua absorbs toxins from intestinal infections, and acts in the intestine that the balance of intestinal flora. The leaves and bark are rich in tannins.
Internal use - to the irritation of the mouth and intestine. Decoction of 5 g of flour of fruits in 100 ml water. A cup or a cup of tea, depending on age, two or three times a day.
Flour from seeds of Ceratonia siliqua, one or two hands, in water bath emollient effect, moisturizing the dry skin. Semifluide gelatins prepared with 3% of seed flour lAST to swell n little water can be used as hydrating and soothing facial mask.
Ceratonia siliqua tree may be used to combat soil erosion and forest protection as a decorative tree, solitary or in alignment.
Curiosity - supposed to St. John the Baptist in the wilderness, ate beans from Cerotina siliqua. In some countries, dry beans are sold as the bread of St. John.
George A. Burdock - Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives - CRC Press, 1997
James A. Duke, Michael Castleman, Alice Feinstein - The Green Pharmacy - St. Martin's Press, 1997
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e Illustrate per Riconoscere e Usare le Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Ursinum Allium L. - Aliu of June, Ramsons, wild garlic
Herbaceous perennial, bulb. Oblung bulb. Leaves 2-3, lanceolata, margin entire, top acute, 30 x 3.6 cm. Flowers white, 6-20 hermaphrodite, in whole or pointed umbela backs, caduca; 6 tepale lanceolata, about 1 cm, 6 stamens, superior ovary, peduncle 2 cm. Blooms in May-June. Fruit capsule.
Melia azedarach L.
Name the genre, Melia, derived from Greek and 'azedarach', the Persian word and means 'noble trees'.
Popular name: English: bread tree, Persian lilac, China berry; Nepal: bakaino, Tibet: smag sing.
Distrubuire - in Nepal at around 700-1700 m altitude village in Iran Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan and China.
Acanthus mollis - Bear's Breeches
Native of the Mediterranean area, grows in gardens like ornamentals. Flower can be over 1.8 m tall, the purple-pink bracts contrasting with the white flowers. Prefer shelter and deep, moist soil.
Madhuca longifolia Macb.
Deciduu tree, 20 meters high, round crown. Leaves alternate, elliptic, 7.5-13 cm, margin entire, top acute, 10/12 pairs of ribs, stalks 1-2 cm long. Flowers axillary, creamy, fragrant, calyx covered with dense hairs; Corola pale yellow, 1 cm long, 6-12 petals
Trees and shrubs
Rosa gallia L.
Bush, 100-150 cm tall, robust system radically, lignificat produces underground runners. The stems are green, with red points. Leaves imparipenate; 3.7 Folio, oval or elliptical, or short stalks Sesi, evening edge, glabra upper surface and glossy, the lower part is lighter and has many glandular hairs
Maclura tricuspidata - native to North America, used as an ornamental species, used for protection curtains.
Ostrya carpinifolia - used as an ornamental species for gardens, parks and green street.
Ostrya is derived from Greek 'Ostrya', referring to the shape of bracts that protect the fruit.
Ilex perado - small tree, port pyramidal, evergreen. Originally from the Canary Islands, dense forests grow in the Aqua Garcia, in association with Apollonias barbujana, Arbutus canariensis, Laurus Azores, Myrsine canariensis, Ocotal foetens, Persea indica, Prunus Lusitania subsp. hixa, Visna mocanera.
Aptenia cordifolia Schwantes
Aptenia cordifolia - Prostate species, evergreen, native to southern Africa. Leaves opposite, petiolate, ovat-cord, edge entire, 1-3 cm long. Flowers solitary, terminal or axillary, short pedunculate, 1 cm diameter, 4 sepa unequal petals united at the base, pink to purple, stamens numerous. Blooms in April-August. Fruit capsule, obconica, 4 valves, 1 cm long.
Prunus laurocerasus L.
Shrub or small tree, 6 m high. Leaves evergreen, alternate, coriacee, lamina lanceolata-obovata, top acute, base cuneata, upper surface glossy green, the bottom is opaque, ribbed clear, ribbed robust short.
Convolvulus althaeoides - herbaceous plant, perennial. Originally from the Mediterranean basin, growing in dry places, on the streets.
Solidago caesia - blue-stemmed goldenrod
Solidago box to - perennial species, native to North America, grows naturally in dry soils on roadsides.