Scientific name - Citrus sp.
Popular names --
Distribution and Habitat - originally from China, the southern regions (Hunan, Kwangsi, Kwangrung, Szechaw, Fukien, Kweichow).
Description - shrubs or small trees, up to 6-15 m high, evergreen. Shallow root system. Bark smooth, thin, gray-brown to green. Most species have a single trunk, hardwood. Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) has a thick trunk 0.5 - a, 75 m in diameter. Stalk young are edges, green. Stalk elderly are circular in section. The leaves are entire, 4-8 cm long, simple, ovata, oval or elliptic, acute to obtuse tip rod with glands containing essential oils, eliminated by crushing. Pentamere and hermaphrodite flowers, 2-4 cm diameter, axillary, fragrant, solitary or in inflorescences CIMO. Calyx consists of 5 SEPA dialisepale shave gamosepale. Corola of 5 white petals, pink, or red to lemon varieties. Stamens 20-40. Subglobos ovary, higher pluricarpelar and sincarp, rags number varies between 8 and 12. Fruit hesperida, indehiscenta, 4-25 cm diameter, wide - ovoid. Endocarp is soft, divided into 10-14 parts. Seeds white to green forms.
Growth rate - slowly, grows about 10 cm per year to the first 3-6 years, 30 cm height from 6-12 years. Fruiting decreases after 20-25 years, but longevity and tree may be 250 years. Flowering occurs in 2-4 years after planting, only a small percentage of flowers produce fruit, many of the flowers picand after opening and a large number of fruit falls to 10-12 weeks after pollination. Fruits need 7-14 months to mature.
Tolerances - paid minimum temperatures are -3 ° C and maximum temperatures are 31-32 ° C. Tolerance towards drought depends on the temperaturi, soil and wind. Adapt well in exhibitions sunny, but tolerate shading and a minimum. Shade or low light effects on fruit quality. Productivitaea can be reduced over 50%, the shadow for more than 6 months. Not tolerate frosts well, soil salinity and strong winds.
Requirements - prefers well drained soils, sandy clay or clay. Citrus grows in acidic to neutral soils with pH 5-8.
Management - regular fertilization of plants, trimming branches dry, remove diseased branches and fruit, or attacked by pests, not exaggerate the wetting, excessive watering provoaza illness. Internal branches are removed to encourage growth of outer branches. The form of nitrogen fertilization on N and K fertilization with potassium too much nitrogen can promote the occurrence of pests. Responds well to application of organic fertilizers combined with regular irrigation in phe first 3 months, resulting in robust growth in first year after planting.
Propagation - by seeds, grafting, cuttings. Seed propagated varieties are more susceptible to disease, and need more time to produce fruit. In trade, the most common method of propagation is by grafting.
Seed germination is hipogee species belonging to subgenus Eucitrus and epigee to Papeda. Germination takes place after 20 days. Seed viability is low.
Diseases and pests --
Alternaria citri - no external symptoms. Generally attacked mandarins. The pulp has an unpleasant taste.
Fawcett Elsinoe causes brown pustules on the fruit surface. Liberobacter sp. is a bacterium that grows in the bark, leaves and ribs infected trees. Affected fruit remain green and the young are yellow stalk.
Eriophyes Sheldon, Panonychus citri Toxoptera citricida, Diaphorina citri. Bactrocera dorsallis and Ceratitis capitata lay their eggs in fruit, the larvae grow and feed inside the fruit.
Phyllocoptruta oleivora - causes leaf damage;
Phytophthora - their roots prevent her water and food they need, the leaves turn yellow, droop and fall, tree fall gradually decline and often die. All Phytophthora can affect the trunk.
Pseudomonas syringae - the bacteria attacks the leaves, stalks and fruits, lesions appear on the ribbed wings extending to the leaf and stalk quickly. Bolneave areas covered by a red-brown crust.
Xanthomonas citri - citrus cancer is caused by X. citri bacteria that attack all parts of young plant.
Partners garden - not planting anything in the crown of a species of Citrus sp., Much less Bidens bipinnata and Cynodon dactylon.
Properties and Uses - extract din seeds and grapefruit pulp is used to produce a powerful antibacterial agent and fungicide. The leaves of lemon (Citrus limon) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) are used for tea. In Egypt orange juice is fermented to make wine.
Citrus sinensis, can use the flowers and fruit peel, have properties appetizers, digestive, aromatic, sedative antispasmotice.
From Citrus limon fruit peel and juice is used for their flavoring vitaminizante, digestive depurative, antiseptic.
The leaves, flowers and fruit peel of Citrus aurantium properties appetizers, digestive, aromatic, sedative and antispasmotice.
Citrus juice is bergamia flavoring properties, antiseptic, purified stimulant.
Citrus fruits have nutritional properties. Vitamin C between 25-100 mg/100 ml. Fruit juice contains sugar and citric acid, malic acid in small properties.
Following the first literary Citrus sp. are reported in the Book of Odes, written in the Chou dynasty, from 1027-256 BC
Dioscorides wrote the book 'Medical Materials', translated into Italian by Matthioli in 1544. Citrus in this book is called 'kedromela'. The Romans called 'KITR'. Plutrac philosopher (46-120) was the first to say that the white of the peel is edible. Galen (130-200) described the medicinal properties of Citrus species.
Arabs give high importance to extract oil in the peel of Citrus. Italian extended water use of perfume in the XIV century.
Allen Susser - The Great Citrus Book - Ten Speed Press, 1997
Giovanni Dugo, Angelo Di Giacomo - Citrus - The Genus Citrus - CRC Press, 2002
Harold H.Hume - Citrus Fruits and Their Culture - General Books, 2007
P. Spiegel-Roy, EE Goldschmidt - The Biology of Citrus - Cambridge University Press, 1996
Pierre Lazlo - Citrus A History - Chicago University Press, 2008
Walter Reuther - Citrus Crop Protection Industry - University of California, 1978
Trees and shrubs
Ilex aquifolium is a shrub native to Britain, 8 meters high. Crown dense pyramid. Bark is smooth, gray, alternate leaves, coriacee, ovat-elliptical or pointed spinal rigid, acute, those tricky steps and with the lower branches of the PA wave the upper branches, evergreen, bright green, toxic.
Dasiphora fruticosa - deciduu shrub, native of Asia, grows on wet soils and wet rocks.
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.
Dioecious tree, 25 meters high. Dark brown bark with deep cracks. Glabra or slightly hairy stalk, thin, red-brown, smooth; mugurele terminal 3-5 mm, nested, 6-8 scales visible, few pubescent and Chile, bicolori with red edges and the rest suprafatei green.
Lotus maculatus Breitf.
Herbaceous, with the stem wood, under-shrub pendulum. Strain up to 1.5 m high, glabra, gray-green silky, internoduri 35-45 mm stipele children. Leaves imparipenat, 5 folio; foliole 10-25 x 1 mm, subulate or linear, convex upper and concave lower edges entire, top obtuse-rounded, surface moderately pubescent.
Dianthus barbatus - perennial herb, native to southern Europe, grows at the edge of forests, bushes and meadows. Cultivated in parks and gardens as ornamentals.
Papaver aurantiacum - perennial species, grows on limestone debris and rocky places in alpine and subalpine region.
Helianthemum nummularium - Rock Rose
Scientific name, Helianthemum numularium, derived from the Greek Helios = sun and the Latin word indicating the currency, numumus = currency, because the flowers that sparkle in sunlight like a golden coin.