31
Jan
2009
Eichhorn crassipes
Flowers | Liliopsida

Popular names: Water Hyacinth.

Genus Eichhorn contains 8 species, the most common is E. crassipes. It is easily confused with E. Azure, a difference between them is the language which in E. Azurea is cuneata and the E. crassipes is truncata or heart failure.

Eichhorn crassipes, first was introduced as the Pontedera by von Martius, in 1883, Solms-Laubach transfer species in the genus Eichhorn.

Was introduced in Europe in the nineteenth century and was naturalized in northern Portugal. The U.S. was introduced in 1884, and in Africa was introduced in the Nile Delta in 1870. In India and Australia was introduced in 1890. In China was introduced as ornamental species and controlher water pollution with heavy metals, in 1930.

Distribution and Habitat - originating in South America, and in all tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. Line grows on rivers, ponds, reservoirs and lakes.

Description - stolonifera species perennial, floating aquatic. Roots Plume, dense. Runners 10 inches long that ends with a bud to give a new plant. Erect leaves in rosette; ovat language to suborbicular or rhombic, 3-25 x 3-15 cm, top obtuse-round, the truncated-cordata, nervatiune ceilings, glabra, dark green or lime green, wavy margins, stalks of 4 -35 cm long, spongy. Stipele membranous, 2-15 cm long. Floral stem erect, 30 cm long, with 1-2 apical leaves with limb suborbicular, 2 x 2 cm petiole 0.2-0.5 cm long. Ear type blossom stalk, 4-15 cm long, with 8-12 flowers. Infundibuliforma flower, perianth irregular lobate; 6 tepale elliptic, 2-3 cm long, top obtuse, white, lilac or blue, lobe soupsRior ribbed dark purple with a yellow spot; periantului tube is 1.5 cm long, pubescent. 6 stamens unequal, 3 large and 3 small. Fruit capsule, 1-1.5 cm long. Seeds numerous (300), ovoid, wing, 0.5-1 mm.

Cultivation and maintenance - it needs sunny sites, sheltered from the wind. In winter, plants are preserved under glass in sandy soil mix at 20 ° C, soil moisture is preserved, in an exhibition sunny, when danger of frost passes can be taken out in the pond. Of pond water is stored at a temperature of 25-28 ° C. The fertilizeaza week. Old roots are clipped regularly to not let it break down in the tank.

Multiplication - the seeds which remain viable in aquatic sediments for 15-20 years. The assignment of new plants on runners formed.

Use - help to control pollution and water purification, small amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and toxic metals. Is also used as ornamental species inntru ponds, and lakes helesteuri.

Partners garden - Juncus effusus 'spiralis', Hydrocharis morsus wound, pseudocorus Iris, Typha laxmannii.

In places where this plant is invasive, reduces the biomass of fish.

To control breeding Eichhorn crassipes using both chemical and biological.

Parthenium hysterophorus L. - invasive species originating in Mexico is alelopatica the other invasive aquatic species such as E. crassipes. Residue dried leaves and flowers in water applied to0.5% will kill E. crassipes in less than one months.

Insects used in controlling E. crassipes in the U.S., Neochetina eichhorniae was introduced to Florida from South America in 1972 and gave the best results in controlling E. crassipes. N. Eichhorniae larvae create tunnels in the stalks of E. crassipes foam, destroying the plant.

Fungus Cercospora leaf piaropi produces brown lesions.

Infection with E. crassipes may have economic causes because these plants and prevent trafficking in places narrow boats channel or waterway.

References

Bryan R. Davies, Keith F. Walker - The Ecology of River Systems - Springer, 1986

Elizabeth J. Czarapata - Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest - University of Wisconsin Press, 2005

G. Dennis Cooke, Eugene B. Welch, Spencer Peeterson, Stanley A. Nichols - Restoration and Management of Lakes ans Reserveoirs - CRC, 2005

Greg Speichert, Sue Speichert - Encyclopedia of Water Garden Plants - Timber Press, 2004

Harold Mooney, Richard J. Hobbs - Invasive Species in a Changing World - Island Press, 2000

Inderjit, KG Mukerji - Allelochemicals: Pathpgens and Biological Control of Plant Diseases - Springer, 2006

Joseph Caffrey, Philip RF Barrett, Kevin J. Murphy, Philip Hi Wade - Management and Ecology of Freshwater Plants - Springer, 1997

Julie K. Cronk, M. Siobhan Fennessy - Wetland Plants: Biology and Ecology - CRC, 2001

Kathleen Fisher - The Complete Guide to Water Gardens, Ponds & Fountains - Creative Homeowner, 2005

Thomas Croat - Flora of Barro Colorado Island - Stanford University Press, 1978

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