Scientific name - Eschscholzia californica
Adelbert von Chamisso, naturalist on board the Russian ship 'Rurick', discovered and named this species in 1815, in honor of the physicist and naturalist Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz.
Popular names - the California poppy, California Poppy, Kalifornischer Goldmohn
Distribution and Habitat - originating in the Pacific until the west coast of Oregon and Baja California, which grows at altitudes of 2000 m.
Description - perennial species in the area of origin, in other regions is annual, reaching up to 5-60 cm high, glabra, glauca. Stem branched, decumbenta. Leaves basal and caulinare, green-glauca, sectors, lobes linear or obluongi, glabra. Floriferi buds are obconici pick. Flowers solitàre, peduncle of 5-15 cm long, calyx acute or acuminata, glabru, glauca; Corola consisting of 4 petals yellow-orange, 5 cm long, numerous stamens. Blooming period from February to September. Made of bee pollination. Fruit capsule dehiscence, 3-9 cm long, seeds numerous, 1-2.5 mm, black or dark brown.
Growth rate - moderate.
Tolerances - any type of land, if well drained.
Requirements - prefer sandy soils rich in humus., Exhibitions sunny.
Management - not excess water requirements, water is sufficient rainfall, the wet just to prolong blooming.
Propagation - by seeds, which resemble the fall or early spring. The seeds are very small depth looks at, few mm, and will germinate after the first rain of autumn, or after the first warm days of spring. It is therefore not support the transplantation of individualhow to sow directly into garden soil. The land should be sandy, well drained and sunny exhibition.
Diseases and pests - afidele, red mite.
Can be replaced with Eschscholzia caespitosa which has several strains florifere.
Cultivars and varieties -. californica subsp. californica var. California (prostrata, flowers yellow), E. californica subsp. californica var. maritima, E. californica subsp. californica var. Croce (orange flowers), E. californica subsp. californica var. peninsularis, E. californica subsp. Mexican, E. californica var. douglasii, E. californica var. peninsularis, 'White', 'Apricot Flambeau', 'aurantiaca', 'Buttermilk', 'Carmine', 'dall', 'Inferno', 'Mandarins', Purple Gleam'.
Properties and Uses - in the USA is cultivated to stabilize sandy soils in combination with other ornamental species.
Aerial parts contain alkaloids isoquinoloni - californidin, eschscholzine, protopine, allocryptin alpha-and beta-allocryptin.
Eschscholzia californica is toxic to humans. The planta sedative, analgesic, antidiareica, antitussives, diaphoretica, antispasmodic, simile effects of Papaver somniferum but is weaker. It is a substitute for marijuana.
In France, was used in treatments for insomnia and drug addiction pharmacology.
Decoction of flowers Eschscholzia californica is a good insecticide against lice (the hair of children).
Teas based Eschscholzia californica not drink during pregnancy.
For infusion using a teaspoon of Eschscholzia californica in a cup of tea.
Myth, Legend and Folklore --
California poppy became the flower of California in 1903.
Allan M. Armitage - Armitage's Manual of Annuals, Biennials and Half-Hardy Perennials - Timber Press, 2001
Aviva Jill Romme - Natural Health after Birth - Healing Arts Press, 2002
Bob Hyland - Designing Borders for Sun and Shade - Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 2006
Daniel E. Moerman - Native American ethnobotany - Timber Press, 1998
Ethan Russo - Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs - Routledge, 2001
LeRoy Abrams - Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States - Stanford University Press, 1944
Peter Hanelt, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research - Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops - Springer, 2001
Sia Morhardt, J. Emil Morhardt - California Desert Flowers - University of California Press, 2004
Stefanie Schwartz - psychoactive Herbs in Veterinary Behavior Medicine - Wiley-Blackwell, 2005
Lychnis coronaria - the king's beard, flower wedding
Herbaceous biennial. Stem erect, silvery-pubescent, simple or branched, 30-80 cm high. Basal leaves are petiolate, oblong-lanceolata, spatulate, 5-10 cm x 10-25 mm, margins entire, top acute, the caulinare are Sesi, oblong-ovata, Hirsute, 5.12 cm long. Blossom panic terminal peduncle 10 cm long
Leonotis Leonurus - a species native to southern Africa but cultivated throughout the world as ornamental species in parks and gardens.
Leonotis grecum derived from 'Leon' = lion, and 'Otis' = ear alluding to the shape of the corolla.
Herbaceous perennial, fleshy rhizome. Flexible stem, erect to decumbenta, ribbed, light purple, 8-20 cm high. Leaves petiolate, green-glauca, glabra, 5-10 cm long, leaf-ovat basal orbiculare or reniforme; caulinare lanceolata-spatulate leaves, base cuneata, top acute, edge teeth caulinare upper leaves are elliptical, bracteiforme.
Quercus robur - oak, Tufan
native trees (Romania), robust 50 m high, 1-2 m stem diameter, crown wide, irregular. Ritidom dark brown, deep furrow. Crown deep and wide, with vigorous branches, units, stretched horizontally, can cover the maximal development of 200-300 sqm. Lujerii annually, vigorous, edge, brown-olive trees, glabra, with small lenticele rare.
Tribulus terrestris - the old woman's teeth
Herbaceous annual, prostrata, with branches 80 cm long. Paripenat-compound leaves, 4-8 folio, oblong folio, 4.12 x 4 mm. Sepa 2-4 mm long. Petals 3.6 mm long. Stigma pyramidal-elongated. Blooms in May-September.
Dasiphora fruticosa - deciduu shrub, native of Asia, grows on wet soils and wet rocks.
Centaurea uniflora subsp. nervosa
Centaurea uniflora subsp. nervosa - originally from Northern Apennines, the Alps, south-eastern Carpathians and the Balkans. Hemicriptofita species, grows on dry meadows and rocky, limestone, from 1100 up to 2600 m altitude.
Semi-evergreen or evergreen species that cover the ground well. Leaves linear alternee or rosettes on stems, 1.5-2 cm long and 2 mm wide, Sesia, subulate. Cimoasa blossom or panic terminal flower formed of 3.9. Corola formed of 5 petals emarginate at top, obovata, 1 cm long, 5 mm wide, glabra, 1.3 cm long tube. 5 stamens, in the corolla tube of different heights.