Scientific name - Eschscholzia californica
Adelbert von Chamisso, naturalist on board the Russian ship 'Rurick', discovered and named this species in 1815, in honor of the physicist and naturalist Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz.
Popular names - the California poppy, California Poppy, Kalifornischer Goldmohn
Distribution and Habitat - originating in the Pacific until the west coast of Oregon and Baja California, which grows at altitudes of 2000 m.
Description - perennial species in the area of origin, in other regions is annual, reaching up to 5-60 cm high, glabra, glauca. Stem branched, decumbenta. Leaves basal and caulinare, green-glauca, sectors, lobes linear or obluongi, glabra. Floriferi buds are obconici pick. Flowers solitàre, peduncle of 5-15 cm long, calyx acute or acuminata, glabru, glauca; Corola consisting of 4 petals yellow-orange, 5 cm long, numerous stamens. Blooming period from February to September. Made of bee pollination. Fruit capsule dehiscence, 3-9 cm long, seeds numerous, 1-2.5 mm, black or dark brown.
Growth rate - moderate.
Tolerances - any type of land, if well drained.
Requirements - prefer sandy soils rich in humus., Exhibitions sunny.
Management - not excess water requirements, water is sufficient rainfall, the wet just to prolong blooming.
Propagation - by seeds, which resemble the fall or early spring. The seeds are very small depth looks at, few mm, and will germinate after the first rain of autumn, or after the first warm days of spring. It is therefore not support the transplantation of individualhow to sow directly into garden soil. The land should be sandy, well drained and sunny exhibition.
Diseases and pests - afidele, red mite.
Can be replaced with Eschscholzia caespitosa which has several strains florifere.
Cultivars and varieties -. californica subsp. californica var. California (prostrata, flowers yellow), E. californica subsp. californica var. maritima, E. californica subsp. californica var. Croce (orange flowers), E. californica subsp. californica var. peninsularis, E. californica subsp. Mexican, E. californica var. douglasii, E. californica var. peninsularis, 'White', 'Apricot Flambeau', 'aurantiaca', 'Buttermilk', 'Carmine', 'dall', 'Inferno', 'Mandarins', Purple Gleam'.
Properties and Uses - in the USA is cultivated to stabilize sandy soils in combination with other ornamental species.
Aerial parts contain alkaloids isoquinoloni - californidin, eschscholzine, protopine, allocryptin alpha-and beta-allocryptin.
Eschscholzia californica is toxic to humans. The planta sedative, analgesic, antidiareica, antitussives, diaphoretica, antispasmodic, simile effects of Papaver somniferum but is weaker. It is a substitute for marijuana.
In France, was used in treatments for insomnia and drug addiction pharmacology.
Decoction of flowers Eschscholzia californica is a good insecticide against lice (the hair of children).
Teas based Eschscholzia californica not drink during pregnancy.
For infusion using a teaspoon of Eschscholzia californica in a cup of tea.
Myth, Legend and Folklore --
California poppy became the flower of California in 1903.
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Aviva Jill Romme - Natural Health after Birth - Healing Arts Press, 2002
Bob Hyland - Designing Borders for Sun and Shade - Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 2006
Daniel E. Moerman - Native American ethnobotany - Timber Press, 1998
Ethan Russo - Handbook of Psychotropic Herbs - Routledge, 2001
LeRoy Abrams - Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States - Stanford University Press, 1944
Peter Hanelt, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research - Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops - Springer, 2001
Sia Morhardt, J. Emil Morhardt - California Desert Flowers - University of California Press, 2004
Stefanie Schwartz - psychoactive Herbs in Veterinary Behavior Medicine - Wiley-Blackwell, 2005
Verbascum blattaria - Herbaceous biennial, glabra bottom of the stem and glandular hairs towards the top, grows spontaneously in the desert and the hot side of cultivated fields, rivers and channels, up to 800 m altitude.
Dianthus barbatus - perennial herb, native to southern Europe, grows at the edge of forests, bushes and meadows. Cultivated in parks and gardens as ornamentals.
Calendula officinalis L. - marigold
Stem herbaceous, 20-50 cm tall, branched, erect. Leaves alternate, rib main evidence and glandular hairs, nervatiune pinnate, basal leaves are oblong-lanceolata, 8-14 x 4-5 cm, Sesia, the reniforma, margin entire, apex round upper leaf stalks are short, narrow lanceolata, 5 x 1.4 cm.
Annual U.S. glabra slightly pubescent. Stem erect, branched, 10-50 cm high. Stipelate leaves, opposite, 1.5-5 cm, ovata lanceolata or elliptic, margin crenat-evening, petiole 0.2-1.5 cm. Dioecious, occasionally monoecious.
Perennial species, 30 cm height, 60-90 cm diameter, forming a dense bush covering the ground well. Leaves linear-lanceolata, margin entire, shiny dark green, 2,5-4 cm long x 3.6 mm wide. Flowers white, 4 petals, blossom type corymb, 9 cm diameter, January-June period of prosperity. Fruit silicula, 7 mm long.
Lysimachia vulgaris - perennial species, herbaceous with underground rhizome widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia, grows in wet environments, wetlands, side channels and water courses, from 0 to 1200 m altitude.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill - jujuba
Deciduu tree, 5.12 m high. Stalk annually, thin, 2-3 mm diameter, pale green, glabra, geniculati. Leaves alternate, bright green, elliptical language-lanceolata, margine crenata, top obtuse or emarginat, the round or asymmetrical, 3-5 cm long; nervatiune arch, median rib and a pair of secondary ribs, pale green stalks, 5-7 mm .