Scientific name - Fraxinus excelsior
Popular names - common ash, ash, frassino common vovul, uar, frascen.
Origin and distribution - originating in Europe and Asia Minor. Demanding compared to water, is found in wet places of the deal, along water courses.
Description - deciduu tree, 30-40 m high, stem right, branched at the top, crown ovoid, large and rare. A young bark is smooth, light gray green and mature forms at the thick crust with a small crack, dark color. Lujerii round, flattened at the bud, glabra, green-olive trees, with dark buds. Imparipenat-compound leaves, 30-40 cm long, with 5.11 Folio, Sesia, oblong to oblong lanceolata, for each 7.11 cm long, long acuminata, based cuneatae, crenat soirees, face dark green, pale green inside, glabra. Flowers polygamous, without covering flowers appear before the leaf, in April. Fruit Samara lanceolata, 2,5-4 cm x 6.8 mm, top obtuse or emarginat, decurenta to the wing, remain on the plant during the winter. Ripening seeds takes place in autumn, and dissemination, spring. Longevity, 200 years, with strong shoots.
Growth rate - fast.
Requirements - species moderately thermophilic, not withstand high winter frosts, prefer sunny exhibitions, a slight shadow, side coming from the other trees do not harm them. Particular about soil thrive on deep soils, well drained, reavene, rich in carbonates, Alluvial, characteristic meadows, which support even floods, as the reddish brown soils.
Management - requires little maintenance skims.
Propagation - the seeds wereand grafting. The seeds must be stratified, low temperature, 5 ˚ C, germination occurs after one to two years at temperatures of 18-20 ˚ C.
Diseases and pests - Lytta vescicatoria, attack leaves feeding tongue; Lepersinus fraxini make gallery in bark; Tomostethus melanopygus feed on leaves, leaving only the ribs; ignarius Fomes attack wood, Phytophthora omnivores attack young plants with necrotic lesions in the package; Microsphaera Alni leaves the stalk yearly attack, causing the appearance of saw dust.
Cultivars and varieties - 'angustifolia' - May foliolele species with elongated than the type species, 'Argenta' - powerful variegata tree leaves and white or totally white 'diversifolia' - narrow crown in May, leaves beautiful, simple or sometimes tripartite , needle, 'Pendula' - smaller sized tree with willow crown, wide, with branches hanging to the ground, 'Pendula Variegata' - grows slowly, derived from the cultivation of 'Pendula'.
Properties and Uses - forestry and ornamental species of interest. Produce a quality woodsuperior, white, yellow, elastic, strong, durable, hard, silky-looking, which is processed well and beautiful shine. It is used for mobile furniruri, sports equipment. Wood growth ring winding, called curly ash is much appreciated, being done to mobile luxury. As ornamental tree, with a lush foliage, are planted in parks, on lawns, paths, hedges, are resistant to air pollution, smoke and heat. Leaves and bark to extract active principles in therapeutic human and veterinary medicine.
Bark of branches, leaves and fruits have antirheumatic properties, diaforeice, diuretics and laxatives.
Bark is harvested spring, when it comes in vegetation, from the branches of 3-4 years, leaves harvested in June-July, the fruits are collected in August-September. All are dried in the shade in thin layers are preserved in paper bags.
The leaves have diuretic properties, thentireumatice and intestinal regulator. It is an infusion of 2 g dried leaves in 100 ml of water and drink two to three cups a day. All the leaves can be made and a tincture Vinoasă of 4 g leaves in 100 ml white wine, leave to soak for 8 days, and drink a glass to the masses proncipale.
Infusion of 8 g leaves in 100 ml of water, apply compresses on painful parts (rheumatic).
A decoction of bark is made of 2 g in 100 ml of water, drink two to three cups a day for drop foot.
4 g in 100 ml water fruit is a decoction and drink one cup a day, as laxative.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - were made in ancient fruit preserved with salt and vinegar to be used as a spice.
Packham JR, Harding DJ, Hilton GM, Stuttard RA - Functional Ecology of Woodlands and Forests - Springer, 1992
Juliette of Bairacli-Levy - The Complete Herbal Handbook for Farm and stableyou - Faber and Faber, 19,991
M. Forrest - Landscape Trees and Shrubs Selection, Use and Management - Publiching CABI, 2006
Ronald Houtman - Variegated Trees and Shrubs - Timber Press, 2004
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e per Riconoscere Illustrate it is Usare Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Species native to North America, lies at altitudes up to 1500 m in Romania is less common in parks and gardens as ornamental species.
Leaves, branches and bark is an aromatic oil extracts used in medicine.
Laurus nobilis - on time and stay Greeks, laurel branches were used to make crowns for the heads of heroes, and to honor poets.
Ribes uva-crispa - agris, grapes bear
Thorny shrub, 1 m high. Gray-brown bark is exfoliating. Rich stem branched divaricata. Branches long, thin, gray-brown with yellow top, pubescent glabrata in youth and adulthood. Leaves simple, cordiforme, 3-5 lobed, toothed, long stalks
Trees and shrubs
Abies concolor Lindl.
Silver tree - evergreen tree, used for ornamental purposes, because the pyramid shape of the crown, the colorii leaves and frost resistance. The name 'concolor' refers to the fact that leaves have the same color on both sides.
Thunberg mysorensis is used as an ornamental species for rapid growth and flowers arranged in raceme. Blooms in July-September.
Evergreen shrub, 1.2 m high. Strain with 4 edges. Leaves opposite, membranous, soft, dark green upper side and reddish on the underside, nervatiune obvious, limb oblong-lanceolata, margin entire, top acute, base cuneata, 8-12 x 20-30 cm. Cime axillary inflorescences. Calyx with 4 SEPA.
Evergreen shrub, 3-4 m high. Leaves alternate, long-petiolate, palmately-compound, with 7.9 Folio, coriacee, folio obovata, glabra, margin entire, nervatiune pinnate, petiole thin, 12-15 cm long. Blossom terminal, glabra, 20 cm long, flowers arranged in umbele raceme, 0.7-1 cm in diameter, pedicel 5.8 mm long. Fruit drupe, ovoid, orange, 5 x 4 mm.
Punica granatum - pomegranate
Deciduu shrub, 2-5 m high. Bark gray young branches are yellow-green. Leaves alternate; paripenat-compound, 4-6 pairs of folio oval-elliptic, 10-35 mm long, dark green in summer and autumn yellow, 5-10 cm long; spinescente Stipe. Flowers solitary, Corola yellow, 20-25 mm long, increase the armpit leaves, blooming from May to June.
Tree. Stem thick, iregulat branched, 8-20 m high, small trunk with rough bark and dark, horizontal branches. Leaves opposite, dark green, elliptical language, 10-20 x 6.9 cm, the round, top round, margins entire, ribs parallel and perpendicular to the mid rib. Flowers in axillary Cime of 4-15 flowers blossom is white rachides cream, white flowers, 2.5 cm diameter and 0.8-1.4 cm long.
Herbaceous perennial. Floral stem erect, 3-15 cm high. Basal leaves often nested, lamina lanceolata, 0.4-1.5 cm x 0.8-2.0 mm, margins cartilaginous, top acute, glabra, nauseating. Flowers solitary, bisexual or unisexuate. Pedicel 2-40 mm.
Aquilegia fragrans - fragrant caldarea
Herbaceous perennial. Roots thin. Stem 30-100 cm tall, branched, slightly pubescent on the underside, becoming glandular-pubescent in the upper. Basal leaves bi or tri-Ternate, glauca, lobes 2-3-lobate, 1.5-4 x 1.5-4 cm, base cuneata, obovata, glabra green glauca and upper face, and pale green inside pubescent, hairy stalks.