Scientific name - Fraxinus excelsior
Popular names - common ash, ash, frassino common vovul, uar, frascen.
Origin and distribution - originating in Europe and Asia Minor. Demanding compared to water, is found in wet places of the deal, along water courses.
Description - deciduu tree, 30-40 m high, stem right, branched at the top, crown ovoid, large and rare. A young bark is smooth, light gray green and mature forms at the thick crust with a small crack, dark color. Lujerii round, flattened at the bud, glabra, green-olive trees, with dark buds. Imparipenat-compound leaves, 30-40 cm long, with 5.11 Folio, Sesia, oblong to oblong lanceolata, for each 7.11 cm long, long acuminata, based cuneatae, crenat soirees, face dark green, pale green inside, glabra. Flowers polygamous, without covering flowers appear before the leaf, in April. Fruit Samara lanceolata, 2,5-4 cm x 6.8 mm, top obtuse or emarginat, decurenta to the wing, remain on the plant during the winter. Ripening seeds takes place in autumn, and dissemination, spring. Longevity, 200 years, with strong shoots.
Growth rate - fast.
Requirements - species moderately thermophilic, not withstand high winter frosts, prefer sunny exhibitions, a slight shadow, side coming from the other trees do not harm them. Particular about soil thrive on deep soils, well drained, reavene, rich in carbonates, Alluvial, characteristic meadows, which support even floods, as the reddish brown soils.
Management - requires little maintenance skims.
Propagation - the seeds wereand grafting. The seeds must be stratified, low temperature, 5 ˚ C, germination occurs after one to two years at temperatures of 18-20 ˚ C.
Diseases and pests - Lytta vescicatoria, attack leaves feeding tongue; Lepersinus fraxini make gallery in bark; Tomostethus melanopygus feed on leaves, leaving only the ribs; ignarius Fomes attack wood, Phytophthora omnivores attack young plants with necrotic lesions in the package; Microsphaera Alni leaves the stalk yearly attack, causing the appearance of saw dust.
Cultivars and varieties - 'angustifolia' - May foliolele species with elongated than the type species, 'Argenta' - powerful variegata tree leaves and white or totally white 'diversifolia' - narrow crown in May, leaves beautiful, simple or sometimes tripartite , needle, 'Pendula' - smaller sized tree with willow crown, wide, with branches hanging to the ground, 'Pendula Variegata' - grows slowly, derived from the cultivation of 'Pendula'.
Properties and Uses - forestry and ornamental species of interest. Produce a quality woodsuperior, white, yellow, elastic, strong, durable, hard, silky-looking, which is processed well and beautiful shine. It is used for mobile furniruri, sports equipment. Wood growth ring winding, called curly ash is much appreciated, being done to mobile luxury. As ornamental tree, with a lush foliage, are planted in parks, on lawns, paths, hedges, are resistant to air pollution, smoke and heat. Leaves and bark to extract active principles in therapeutic human and veterinary medicine.
Bark of branches, leaves and fruits have antirheumatic properties, diaforeice, diuretics and laxatives.
Bark is harvested spring, when it comes in vegetation, from the branches of 3-4 years, leaves harvested in June-July, the fruits are collected in August-September. All are dried in the shade in thin layers are preserved in paper bags.
The leaves have diuretic properties, thentireumatice and intestinal regulator. It is an infusion of 2 g dried leaves in 100 ml of water and drink two to three cups a day. All the leaves can be made and a tincture Vinoasă of 4 g leaves in 100 ml white wine, leave to soak for 8 days, and drink a glass to the masses proncipale.
Infusion of 8 g leaves in 100 ml of water, apply compresses on painful parts (rheumatic).
A decoction of bark is made of 2 g in 100 ml of water, drink two to three cups a day for drop foot.
4 g in 100 ml water fruit is a decoction and drink one cup a day, as laxative.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - were made in ancient fruit preserved with salt and vinegar to be used as a spice.
Packham JR, Harding DJ, Hilton GM, Stuttard RA - Functional Ecology of Woodlands and Forests - Springer, 1992
Juliette of Bairacli-Levy - The Complete Herbal Handbook for Farm and stableyou - Faber and Faber, 19,991
M. Forrest - Landscape Trees and Shrubs Selection, Use and Management - Publiching CABI, 2006
Ronald Houtman - Variegated Trees and Shrubs - Timber Press, 2004
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e per Riconoscere Illustrate it is Usare Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Stem very thin, erect, branched, finely pubescent, 15-45 cm high. Leaves ovat until obovata-oblong, ribbed, few soirees, top obtuse, base narrow, glabra, slightly pubescent, thin, upper leaves are smaller. Flowers in bunches, axillary, pedicel pubescent, less than or equal to calyx, calyx pubescent, lobes 3 short and 2 longer lobes. Corola white or blue-violet. Blooms in July-September.
Cichorium intybus - Chicory
Herbaceous biennial or perennial. Stem erect, with branches hispida, geniculate .30 to 120 cm tall. Roots spindle, long on break leaving a bitter white latex. Basal leaves in rosette, petiolate, lamina oblong-lanceolata, lirat-pinatifide or toothed, 30 x 12 cm. The leaves are caulinare Sesi, alternate, oblong-lanceolata.
Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) JWMoore
Shrub or small tree, 7.5-15 m high; ritidom thin, scaly, producing a scaly trunk. Leaves pungent rum, obovata to elliptic, 3-15 x 1.2-7.5 cm, acute to round at the narrow top, coriacee.
Anthyllis vulneraria L. - head Turcului, harmful
Herbaceous perennial herb, polymorphic, rhizome. Prostrata strain or ascending, pubescent, hairs white, 5-40 cm high. Basal leaves, arranged in rosette, stems leaves alternate, imparipenat-compound, folio oblong-linear, foliole terminal is greater than the side glabrata or slightly pubescent on the upper face, lower face and Seto.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill - jujuba
Deciduu tree, 5.12 m high. Stalk annually, thin, 2-3 mm diameter, pale green, glabra, geniculati. Leaves alternate, bright green, elliptical language-lanceolata, margine crenata, top obtuse or emarginat, the round or asymmetrical, 3-5 cm long; nervatiune arch, median rib and a pair of secondary ribs, pale green stalks, 5-7 mm .
Trees and shrubs
Shrub or small tree, evergreen, 1-4 m high. Prostrata strain or upward. Green stalk, glabra, thin, flexible, geniculati. Leaves 2-6 cm long, oblong-elliptic, top obtuse or acute, margin fine teeth 3 ribs prominent upper front glabra, 12-15 mm long stalks.
Syringa vulgaris L.
Ostrya carpinifolia - used as an ornamental species for gardens, parks and green street.
Ostrya is derived from Greek 'Ostrya', referring to the shape of bracts that protect the fruit.
Theobroma cacao - the tree deciduu originating from semi-tropical forests of Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.A
The genus name derives from the Greek "theos" = god, and 'bromine' = food, food of the gods.
Bellium artrutxensis sp.nov. Balearic Islands
Epilobium dodonaei - spcie originated in Europe and the Caucasus, increases debris, calcareous rocks, up to 1700 m altitude.
Cleome spinosa - flower spider
Herbaceous annual. Stem herbaceous, simple, viscid-pubescent, 1 m high. Leaves alternate, petiolate, palmate-compound. Petiole 10-15 cm long, glandular and pubescent. Folio 5-7, onblong-anceolate to elliptic, top acute - acuminata, the conical, 15 cm long, margin entire, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface and slightly pubescent on the underside. Raceme blossom, dense, compact, terminal.
Lycium barbarum - sea of fencing
Thorny shrub, 1-3 m high, stems Pendente .. Leaves alternate, glabra, short stalks, language ovat-elliptic, top acute, base cuneata, margins entire, 1-5.5 x 0.5-1.5 cm. Flowers hermaphrodite, axillary, solitary or in groups, calyx 0.3-0.4 cm long, 5-lobed or consonant, Corola infundibuliforma, 1-1.2 cm, pale purple, petals strong reflexes