Scientific name - Fraxinus excelsior
Popular names - common ash, ash, frassino common vovul, uar, frascen.
Origin and distribution - originating in Europe and Asia Minor. Demanding compared to water, is found in wet places of the deal, along water courses.
Description - deciduu tree, 30-40 m high, stem right, branched at the top, crown ovoid, large and rare. A young bark is smooth, light gray green and mature forms at the thick crust with a small crack, dark color. Lujerii round, flattened at the bud, glabra, green-olive trees, with dark buds. Imparipenat-compound leaves, 30-40 cm long, with 5.11 Folio, Sesia, oblong to oblong lanceolata, for each 7.11 cm long, long acuminata, based cuneatae, crenat soirees, face dark green, pale green inside, glabra. Flowers polygamous, without covering flowers appear before the leaf, in April. Fruit Samara lanceolata, 2,5-4 cm x 6.8 mm, top obtuse or emarginat, decurenta to the wing, remain on the plant during the winter. Ripening seeds takes place in autumn, and dissemination, spring. Longevity, 200 years, with strong shoots.
Growth rate - fast.
Requirements - species moderately thermophilic, not withstand high winter frosts, prefer sunny exhibitions, a slight shadow, side coming from the other trees do not harm them. Particular about soil thrive on deep soils, well drained, reavene, rich in carbonates, Alluvial, characteristic meadows, which support even floods, as the reddish brown soils.
Management - requires little maintenance skims.
Propagation - the seeds wereand grafting. The seeds must be stratified, low temperature, 5 ˚ C, germination occurs after one to two years at temperatures of 18-20 ˚ C.
Diseases and pests - Lytta vescicatoria, attack leaves feeding tongue; Lepersinus fraxini make gallery in bark; Tomostethus melanopygus feed on leaves, leaving only the ribs; ignarius Fomes attack wood, Phytophthora omnivores attack young plants with necrotic lesions in the package; Microsphaera Alni leaves the stalk yearly attack, causing the appearance of saw dust.
Cultivars and varieties - 'angustifolia' - May foliolele species with elongated than the type species, 'Argenta' - powerful variegata tree leaves and white or totally white 'diversifolia' - narrow crown in May, leaves beautiful, simple or sometimes tripartite , needle, 'Pendula' - smaller sized tree with willow crown, wide, with branches hanging to the ground, 'Pendula Variegata' - grows slowly, derived from the cultivation of 'Pendula'.
Properties and Uses - forestry and ornamental species of interest. Produce a quality woodsuperior, white, yellow, elastic, strong, durable, hard, silky-looking, which is processed well and beautiful shine. It is used for mobile furniruri, sports equipment. Wood growth ring winding, called curly ash is much appreciated, being done to mobile luxury. As ornamental tree, with a lush foliage, are planted in parks, on lawns, paths, hedges, are resistant to air pollution, smoke and heat. Leaves and bark to extract active principles in therapeutic human and veterinary medicine.
Bark of branches, leaves and fruits have antirheumatic properties, diaforeice, diuretics and laxatives.
Bark is harvested spring, when it comes in vegetation, from the branches of 3-4 years, leaves harvested in June-July, the fruits are collected in August-September. All are dried in the shade in thin layers are preserved in paper bags.
The leaves have diuretic properties, thentireumatice and intestinal regulator. It is an infusion of 2 g dried leaves in 100 ml of water and drink two to three cups a day. All the leaves can be made and a tincture Vinoasă of 4 g leaves in 100 ml white wine, leave to soak for 8 days, and drink a glass to the masses proncipale.
Infusion of 8 g leaves in 100 ml of water, apply compresses on painful parts (rheumatic).
A decoction of bark is made of 2 g in 100 ml of water, drink two to three cups a day for drop foot.
4 g in 100 ml water fruit is a decoction and drink one cup a day, as laxative.
Myth, Legend and Folklore - were made in ancient fruit preserved with salt and vinegar to be used as a spice.
Packham JR, Harding DJ, Hilton GM, Stuttard RA - Functional Ecology of Woodlands and Forests - Springer, 1992
Juliette of Bairacli-Levy - The Complete Herbal Handbook for Farm and stableyou - Faber and Faber, 19,991
M. Forrest - Landscape Trees and Shrubs Selection, Use and Management - Publiching CABI, 2006
Ronald Houtman - Variegated Trees and Shrubs - Timber Press, 2004
Umberto Boni, Gianfranco Patri - Guida pratica e per Riconoscere Illustrate it is Usare Erbe - Gulliver, 1997
Anthyllis vulneraria L. - head Turcului, harmful
Herbaceous perennial herb, polymorphic, rhizome. Prostrata strain or ascending, pubescent, hairs white, 5-40 cm high. Basal leaves, arranged in rosette, stems leaves alternate, imparipenat-compound, folio oblong-linear, foliole terminal is greater than the side glabrata or slightly pubescent on the upper face, lower face and Seto.
Anchusa italica Retz. - Ox tongue, large miruta
Anchusa italica species is a perennial or biennial, erect stem, up to 150 cm high, much branched, rarely simple, hispida. Originally from the Mediterranean.
Ilex aquifolium is a shrub native to Britain, 8 meters high. Crown dense pyramid. Bark is smooth, gray, alternate leaves, coriacee, ovat-elliptical or pointed spinal rigid, acute, those tricky steps and with the lower branches of the PA wave the upper branches, evergreen, bright green, toxic.
Plants, women and menstrual pain
Trees and shrubs
Teline canariensis - shrub native (endemic) of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, grows at the edge of forests of Pinus radiata and Laurus canariensis novo in association with Neotinea maculata, Hypericum reflexum and Cystus sympithifolius, from 500 to 1500 m altitude.
Erica canaliculata - shrub originating from South Africa, used as an ornamental species in parks and gardens.
Syzygium aromaticum - clove
Small, oblong fruit with little pulp. The dried flower buds of this tree are the cloves of commerce. All parts of the tree are highly aromatic. It is used in the form of a paste or mixture as dental cement.
Melia azedarach L.
Name the genre, Melia, derived from Greek and 'azedarach', the Persian word and means 'noble trees'.
Popular name: English: bread tree, Persian lilac, China berry; Nepal: bakaino, Tibet: smag sing.
Distrubuire - in Nepal at around 700-1700 m altitude village in Iran Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Bhutan and China.
Leaves opposite, or verticil every 3.5 leaves, simple, and with the parties they lanceolata, 1-25 cm long, evergreen or decidue. Flower swing; 4 sepa long, thin, short petals 4, ovary inferior. Fruit 5-25 mm, green-reddish, red or purple, edible. Seeds numerous.
Leonotis Leonurus - a species native to southern Africa but cultivated throughout the world as ornamental species in parks and gardens.
Leonotis grecum derived from 'Leon' = lion, and 'Otis' = ear alluding to the shape of the corolla.
Stylosa Phuopsis annual herbaceous plant, native to eastern Turkey and northern Iran, used as an ornamental species.
Herbaceous annual or perennial. Strain decumbenta - upward, often is wood based. Leaves alternate, entire or pinnate-sectors. Capital solitary and axillary. Involucre with bractei placed on 2-3 lines. Flowers tubular, orange. Ligula sterile flowers, yellow-orange, top with 4 teeth. Receptacle convex or flat. Acorn obovoide, densely-hairy.