Scientific Name – Ginkgo biloba L.
The first description of the genus and species of Ginkgo biloba L. was given by Linnaeus (1771).
Synonyms – Salisburia adiantifolia Smith, Pterophyllus salisburiensia Nelson.
Common name(s) – arboreal pagoda, maidenhair tree, ya-chiao, maiden hair, ginkgo, arbre aux quarante ecus, entenfussbaum, ginkgobaum, Goethe-baum.nogueira do Japao, arbol de los 40 escudos.
Distribution and Habitat – is native to China.
Description – deciduous tree, 40 m; bark grey, deeply furrowed on old trunks. Buds brown, globose, scales imbricate. Leaves green. Fruit globular, orange-yellow drupe. Seeds obovoid to ellipsoid, yellow to orange, 2.3 – 2.7 x 1.9 -2.3 cm, rugose. 2n = 24
Trees flower after 20-35 years.
Growth rate – slow.
Tolerances – tolerant of air pollution.
Requirements – prefers deep, well-drained but not dry acid or alkaline soil.
Management – pruning is best done in spring.
Propagation – by seeds.
Ginkgo seeds are dormant when they fall from the tree because the embryo is not fully developed. If seeds are collected after dispersal, cleaned, and placed in a warm greenhouse, the embryo will grow to its full size and germinate within 8 to 10 weeks.
Pest and Diseases – Etiella zinckenella infest gingko fruits.The Fussarium sp., Macrophomina phaseoli, Agrotis ipsilon and Gulcula panterinaria are the main cause of mortality in young seedlings.
Pseudomonas syringae cause of leaf spot and stem cankers.
Garden Partners –
Cultivars – ‘Albovariegata’ tree with a broad silhouette, slow growth.
‘Fairmont’ erected and narrowed silhouette, fast growth.
‘Horizontalis’ – very broad silhouette and big leaves, principal branches are in a horizontal position.
‘Tremonia’ – slender form, branches are in a horizontal position and are short.
Properties and Uses – Ginkgo is cultivated throughout the temperate zones of the world for ornamental purpose.
G. biloba roots are colonized by the fungus Glomus epigaeum, forming mycorrhiza.
In Traditional Chinese medicine the seeds are used as an astringent, to stop asthma and regulate urinary frequency.
The leaves of Ginkgo, are first mentioned in Pharmaceutical Natural History of Southern Yunnan, published in 1436 during the Ming dynasty, are used externally to treat skin and head sores.
Curiosity – until 350 years ago interest was restricted to China, its natural habitat, Japan and Korea. There female trees were cultivated on a large scale furnish the nuts which remain a popular delicacy in Eastern Asia until today. Most of the 100 species over 1000 years old that still exist in China are found near Buddhist or Daoist temples.
The Ginkgo was first imported to the United States in 1784 as an attractive ornamental plant.
The Ginkgoales appeared in the Permian era and were at maximum range in the Jurassic.
Frederic RosengartenJr – Book of edible Nuts – Dover Publications Inc, 204
Hyla Cass – User’s Guide to Ginkgo Biloba – Basic Health Publication, 2002
Phyllis Balch – Prescription for Herbal Healing – Avery Health Guides, 2003
Teris A van Beek - Ginkgo Biloba – CRC Press, 2000
Trees and shrubs
Acacia anceps - evergreen shrub, 2-3 m tall. Originally from southern Australia, growing in limestone soils on coastal sand and red-brown sands.
Capparis spinosa L. - caper
Undergrowth, with root wood and lignificate stems at the base, erect in the basal portions. Leaves alternate, two stipele turned into thorns, persistent or obsolete, short stalks, oval or subrotund language, edge entire, flashy, green-glauca. Flowers solitary, peduncle long in upper leaf axilla; calyx of 4 sepa green, Corola of 4 white petals, stamens many red-purple color.
Quercus cerris L. - Turkey Oak
Quercus cerris - a species native to south-eastern Europe, cultivated as an ornamental tree, singly or in small groups.
Pachira aquatica growing naturally along rivers in Central and South America. Is cultivated in world wide like ornamental, in hedges or solitary. Resistant to drought anf flooding.
The seeds of P. aquatica are delicious raw, boiled or roasted. Young leaves and flowers are also edible. The seeds are high in protein and edible oil.