Scientific Name – Ginkgo biloba L.
The first description of the genus and species of Ginkgo biloba L. was given by Linnaeus (1771).
Synonyms – Salisburia adiantifolia Smith, Pterophyllus salisburiensia Nelson.
Common name(s) – arboreal pagoda, maidenhair tree, ya-chiao, maiden hair, ginkgo, arbre aux quarante ecus, entenfussbaum, ginkgobaum, Goethe-baum.nogueira do Japao, arbol de los 40 escudos.
Distribution and Habitat – is native to China.
Description – deciduous tree, 40 m; bark grey, deeply furrowed on old trunks. Buds brown, globose, scales imbricate. Leaves green. Fruit globular, orange-yellow drupe. Seeds obovoid to ellipsoid, yellow to orange, 2.3 – 2.7 x 1.9 -2.3 cm, rugose. 2n = 24
Trees flower after 20-35 years.
Growth rate – slow.
Tolerances – tolerant of air pollution.
Requirements – prefers deep, well-drained but not dry acid or alkaline soil.
Management – pruning is best done in spring.
Propagation – by seeds.
Ginkgo seeds are dormant when they fall from the tree because the embryo is not fully developed. If seeds are collected after dispersal, cleaned, and placed in a warm greenhouse, the embryo will grow to its full size and germinate within 8 to 10 weeks.
Pest and Diseases – Etiella zinckenella infest gingko fruits.The Fussarium sp., Macrophomina phaseoli, Agrotis ipsilon and Gulcula panterinaria are the main cause of mortality in young seedlings.
Pseudomonas syringae cause of leaf spot and stem cankers.
Garden Partners –
Cultivars – ‘Albovariegata’ tree with a broad silhouette, slow growth.
‘Fairmont’ erected and narrowed silhouette, fast growth.
‘Horizontalis’ – very broad silhouette and big leaves, principal branches are in a horizontal position.
‘Tremonia’ – slender form, branches are in a horizontal position and are short.
Properties and Uses – Ginkgo is cultivated throughout the temperate zones of the world for ornamental purpose.
G. biloba roots are colonized by the fungus Glomus epigaeum, forming mycorrhiza.
In Traditional Chinese medicine the seeds are used as an astringent, to stop asthma and regulate urinary frequency.
The leaves of Ginkgo, are first mentioned in Pharmaceutical Natural History of Southern Yunnan, published in 1436 during the Ming dynasty, are used externally to treat skin and head sores.
Curiosity – until 350 years ago interest was restricted to China, its natural habitat, Japan and Korea. There female trees were cultivated on a large scale furnish the nuts which remain a popular delicacy in Eastern Asia until today. Most of the 100 species over 1000 years old that still exist in China are found near Buddhist or Daoist temples.
The Ginkgo was first imported to the United States in 1784 as an attractive ornamental plant.
The Ginkgoales appeared in the Permian era and were at maximum range in the Jurassic.
Frederic RosengartenJr – Book of edible Nuts – Dover Publications Inc, 204
Hyla Cass – User’s Guide to Ginkgo Biloba – Basic Health Publication, 2002
Phyllis Balch – Prescription for Herbal Healing – Avery Health Guides, 2003
Teris A van Beek - Ginkgo Biloba – CRC Press, 2000
Trees and shrubs
Teline nervosa - endemic of the Canary Islands, rape increases from 650 to 700 m altitude, in association with Aeonium undulatum, Carlina salicifolia, Crambe pritzelii, Hypericum canariensis, Olea europaea subsp. cerasiformis, Sonchus leptocephalus.
Banksia ericifolia, originally from Australia, Blue Mountains. In 1992, Banksia ericifolia was chosen as the official emblem of Sydney.
Evergreen shrub originating in Southern Ireland and Mediterranean regions, grows slowly, up to 3 to 10 m, reddish bark, young branches are red-hot, dense crown. Leaves alternate, elliptic-lanceolata, 5-10 cm long, parties, except ribs smooth, glossy dark green, pinnate nervatiune. Flowers white to pale pink, sometimes stained with red, 5-10 mm long, campanulata, odorless, ready to panicule 5 cm long, anther clocks.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill - jujuba
Deciduu tree, 5.12 m high. Stalk annually, thin, 2-3 mm diameter, pale green, glabra, geniculati. Leaves alternate, bright green, elliptical language-lanceolata, margine crenata, top obtuse or emarginat, the round or asymmetrical, 3-5 cm long; nervatiune arch, median rib and a pair of secondary ribs, pale green stalks, 5-7 mm .
Palm mono, with one strain. Trunk erect, gray, 20 m high and 50 cm in diameter. Paripenat-leaves are compound, folio 200-250 pairs of linear-lanceolata. 4,5-5,5 m long Frondele and stalks are covered quarter length. Foliolele have 1,5-5 cm wide. Ribbed rachides may be green or bronze.