Scientific Name - Gossypium herbaceum L.
Synonyms - Gossypium obtusifolium Roxb.
Popular names - bumbac, kutum, cotton, levant cotton, Baumwolle, algodon.
Distribution and Habitat - a species indigenous to India, but grows in Egypt, Asia Minor, Arabia and China.
Description - shrub, 1-1.5 m high. Roots spindle. Green stem, pubescent, rarely glabra. Leaves long petiolate, palmate-lobed, 3-5 lobes, ovata or oblong, margins entire, the heart, top acute, pubescent, light green. Yellow flowers, calyx Campanula, surrounded by an involucre with 6-8 lobes, persistent, yellow petals with a purple patch at the base. Fruit capsule lodges 3-5, 3-5 seeds enveloped in cotton. 2n = 26
Requirements - by herbaceus seedlings and seeds. The seeds germinate at 25 C.
Pests and diseases - Alternaria macrospores, A. alternata, Aphis gossypii, Helicoverpa armigera, Scirtothrips dorsalis.
Properties and Uses - Cotton fiber is the most popular material obtained from this plant and the second is cotton oil rich in protein.
Curiosity - the first writings on cotton were found in the Rig-Veda, Hindu, and written around the 15th century BC
Cotton, derived from the Arabic word or kutum qutum.
Gossypium herbaceum derived from wild species G. herbaceum var. africanum that grows naturally in southern Africa.
Arabis turrita - herbaceous annual native to Europe, growing on limestone cliffs, rocky coasts, in the bushes in the plain region until mountain floor.
Eryngium campestre - rostogol
Eryngium campestre - a species native to Central and S, V Asia, grows on rocky places, sandy in dry meadows and pastures, along roads.
Prenanthes purpurea - rabbit salad
Herbaceous perennial. Stem branched, 25-150 cm, pubescent. Amplexicaule leaves, elliptical, oblong or fidate, margin entire or Pinata-fidata, glauca. Flowers arranged in panicule, ligula flowers are purple, with 5 teeth, tubular flowers absent.
Saponaria officinalis - perennial species, rhizome cylindrical, highly branched, crawler, with sterile and fertile shoots. Originally from Europe and Asia, growing on the river, along fences, roads and crops edges.
Geranium argenteum - herbaceous perennial, grows in the Alps, the limestone rocks in central and northern Italy until SE France, from 1600-2100 m altitude. Rare species.
Asclepias currasavica - scarlet milkweed
Asclepias currasavica - species used as ornamental plants for small gardens, in combination with other herbs such as Echinacea purpurea, Ratibida pinnata, ornamental grasses.
Nemophila maculata - a species endemic in California, Nevada and Sierra Sacramento Valley provinces, increases from 0 to 3100 m altitude cultivated for ornamental purposes in all regions of the world.
Polygala chamaebuxus - perennial, evergreen, subfrutescenta, native to Central, Eastern and South-East, it grows on rocky places in alpine floor.
Cleome spinosa - flower spider
Herbaceous annual. Stem herbaceous, simple, viscid-pubescent, 1 m high. Leaves alternate, petiolate, palmate-compound. Petiole 10-15 cm long, glandular and pubescent. Folio 5-7, onblong-anceolate to elliptic, top acute - acuminata, the conical, 15 cm long, margin entire, glandular-pubescent on the upper surface and slightly pubescent on the underside. Raceme blossom, dense, compact, terminal.