Scientific Name – Morus nigra L.
The specific name ‘nigra’ is derived from tha Latin niger, blak, referring to the colour of the fruit.
Common name(s) – mulberry tree, mora, more nere, moral negro, murier noir, Schwarzer Maulbeerbaum.
Distribution and Habitat – native of Iran, and is cultivated over Europe.
Description – monoeicious, sometimes dioecious, grow 6-9 m hight. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or lobed. Blade with palmate venation at the base. Inflorescences, flowers arranged on an axis thickened; flower small, tetra or pentamerous, actinomorphic, unisexual. Sepals free or slightly united. Stamines opposites to sepals. Ovary superior or inferior, unilocular; two styles. Berries aggregated. Wind pollinated.
Growth rate – fast-growth.
Tolerances – tolerant of atmospheric pollution.
Requirements – warm, well-drained soil, preferably a deep loam; need full sun, 4-5 m between each tree.
Management – standard trees require no pruning except for removing dead wood and thinning branches. Prune in late autumn or early winter.
Propagation – by seeds, germinates best if given 2-3 months cold stratification; or sow seed as soon as it is ripe if possible. Seed hermetic storage at (-20) ̊C. By cuttings of half-wide wood, 7-10 cm with a heel, July-August in a frame. Plant out in spring.
Pest and Diseases – Cercospora moricola, C. souriensis, the leaves of mulberry are spotted by these fungi in very rain seasons.
Ciboria carunculoides, diseased fruits were significantly heavier, longer, and wider than normal fruits; microscopic examination of diseased fruits show that the ovaries are filled with fungal mycelium, replaceing the normal plant tissue.
Cytospora sp., Dothiorella sp., Gibberella baccata var. moricola, may cause cankers on twigs and branches. Prune and destroy dead branches.
Phyllactinia corylea and Uncinula geniculata spread a white powdery coating on the lower leaf surface.
Metcalfa pruinosa, Dorcaschema wildii, Tetranychus urticae.
Garden Partners –
Properties and Uses – Morus nigra is a very ornamental tree, the mulberry is sometimes cultivated in gardens for its delicious edible fruit.
The fruit contain 9% sugar, organic acids, pectin, tannin, vitamins A and C, minerals and other substances. Berries can be eaten raw or dried, in puddings, jams, or sauce.
By fruit is produced an alcoholic drink mixed with cider during fermentation, giving a pleasant taste and deep red colour.
The bark of the tree is laxative. The leaves lower the blood sugar level. The roots have an acrid, bitter taste, and are considered as an excellent vermifuge, when taken, in a powder.
Gintzburger G. Rangelands of the Arid and Semi-Arid Zones in Uzbekistan – Cirad, 2004
Pascal P. Pirone –Diseases and Pests of Ornamental Plants- WileyBlackwell, 5th edition, 1978
Rodolphe-Edouard Spichiger, Vincet V. Savolainen; Murielle Figeat; Daniel Jeanmonod – Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants – Science Publishers, 2004
Trees and shrubs
Thunberg grandiflora Roxb.
Perennials, voluble. Stem thin, green, 2 m height. Leaves opposite, language ovat-lanceolata, acuminata peak, the cordata, margin entire, lobate or iregulat needle, 15 x 10 cm, short stalks, 3.5 ribs. Blue flowers with yellow, white on the outside, 8 x 8 cm, arranged in bouquets with individual pedicel 4-5 cm long, corolla tube 3 cm long
Thunbergia alata - black-eyed Susan
Thunberg spelled - a species native to tropical Africa, but common as ornamental plants.
Caesalpinia gilliesii - a species native to temperate and subtropical regions of South America, grown on every continent as an ornamental species in parks and gardens, may naturalize in areas where the climate is favorable.
Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) JWMoore
Shrub or small tree, 7.5-15 m high; ritidom thin, scaly, producing a scaly trunk. Leaves pungent rum, obovata to elliptic, 3-15 x 1.2-7.5 cm, acute to round at the narrow top, coriacee.
Cardamine bulbifera - herbaceous species, perennial. Hailing from Europe and Asia Minor, grow on fertile soils, limestone, 200 to 1800 m altit., In association with Coryllus avellana, Carpinus betulus, Crataegus laevigata, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, ursinum Allium, Carex pendula, Hyacinthoides non- scripta, Mercurialis perennis, Lamiastrum galeobdolon.
Nemophila maculata - a species endemic in California, Nevada and Sierra Sacramento Valley provinces, increases from 0 to 3100 m altitude cultivated for ornamental purposes in all regions of the world.
Aesculus hippocastanum - common horsechestnut
Aesculus hippocastanum - is used in parks and gardens, the tree line, solitary or in groups. The flowers are bees, and seeds contain starch, protein, tannin, saponin and edible oil, which can be manufactured soap, technical oil, glue, medicines. Species not produce forest wood is of poor quality.
Solanum lycopersicum - herbaceous plant annually. In Europe, Solanum lycopersicum, was introduced in the early sixteenth century. Joseph Pitton of Tournefort was first described in the genus Lycopersicon tomatoes.