Scientific Name – Morus nigra L.
The specific name ‘nigra’ is derived from tha Latin niger, blak, referring to the colour of the fruit.
Common name(s) – mulberry tree, mora, more nere, moral negro, murier noir, Schwarzer Maulbeerbaum.
Distribution and Habitat – native of Iran, and is cultivated over Europe.
Description – monoeicious, sometimes dioecious, grow 6-9 m hight. Leaves alternate, simple, entire or lobed. Blade with palmate venation at the base. Inflorescences, flowers arranged on an axis thickened; flower small, tetra or pentamerous, actinomorphic, unisexual. Sepals free or slightly united. Stamines opposites to sepals. Ovary superior or inferior, unilocular; two styles. Berries aggregated. Wind pollinated.
Growth rate – fast-growth.
Tolerances – tolerant of atmospheric pollution.
Requirements – warm, well-drained soil, preferably a deep loam; need full sun, 4-5 m between each tree.
Management – standard trees require no pruning except for removing dead wood and thinning branches. Prune in late autumn or early winter.
Propagation – by seeds, germinates best if given 2-3 months cold stratification; or sow seed as soon as it is ripe if possible. Seed hermetic storage at (-20) ̊C. By cuttings of half-wide wood, 7-10 cm with a heel, July-August in a frame. Plant out in spring.
Pest and Diseases – Cercospora moricola, C. souriensis, the leaves of mulberry are spotted by these fungi in very rain seasons.
Ciboria carunculoides, diseased fruits were significantly heavier, longer, and wider than normal fruits; microscopic examination of diseased fruits show that the ovaries are filled with fungal mycelium, replaceing the normal plant tissue.
Cytospora sp., Dothiorella sp., Gibberella baccata var. moricola, may cause cankers on twigs and branches. Prune and destroy dead branches.
Phyllactinia corylea and Uncinula geniculata spread a white powdery coating on the lower leaf surface.
Metcalfa pruinosa, Dorcaschema wildii, Tetranychus urticae.
Garden Partners –
Properties and Uses – Morus nigra is a very ornamental tree, the mulberry is sometimes cultivated in gardens for its delicious edible fruit.
The fruit contain 9% sugar, organic acids, pectin, tannin, vitamins A and C, minerals and other substances. Berries can be eaten raw or dried, in puddings, jams, or sauce.
By fruit is produced an alcoholic drink mixed with cider during fermentation, giving a pleasant taste and deep red colour.
The bark of the tree is laxative. The leaves lower the blood sugar level. The roots have an acrid, bitter taste, and are considered as an excellent vermifuge, when taken, in a powder.
Gintzburger G. Rangelands of the Arid and Semi-Arid Zones in Uzbekistan – Cirad, 2004
Pascal P. Pirone –Diseases and Pests of Ornamental Plants- WileyBlackwell, 5th edition, 1978
Rodolphe-Edouard Spichiger, Vincet V. Savolainen; Murielle Figeat; Daniel Jeanmonod – Systematic Botany of Flowering Plants – Science Publishers, 2004
Trees and shrubs
Annona muricata is ornamental species. Fructul is edible as it is consumed fresh, as dessert, or mixed with ice cream or milk. Fruits containing vitamin B (0.07 mg/100g) and C (20 mg/100g), calcium and phosphorus.
Evergreen tree. Leaves opposite, coriacee, oblong to elliptic-lanceolata, 8-18 x 2-4.5 cm, top acuminata, petiole 2-4 mm long. Male cones are cylindrical, grouped 3-4 at underarms, female cones are solitary, the armpit leaves.
Teline nervosa - endemic of the Canary Islands, rape increases from 650 to 700 m altitude, in association with Aeonium undulatum, Carlina salicifolia, Crambe pritzelii, Hypericum canariensis, Olea europaea subsp. cerasiformis, Sonchus leptocephalus.
Evergreen shrub. Branches erect. Leaves green, alternate or subverticilate, 6-21 x 2.5 cm, limb oblong, coriaceu, top acuminata, edge entire, nervatiune pinnate. Flowers arranged in terminal panicule, small flowers, hermaphrodite
Evergreen ornamental plant of the Theaceae family, native from Eastern Asia, its origin is still controversial, being considered by some as species indigenous from Japonia and, by others, from China. It was introduced into Europe by the Portuguese in 1542 and soon spread to Spain, England, France and Italy; into United States at the beginning of the 18th century, and in Australia during the mid 19th century.
Campanula spicata - Alpine endemic species which grows on calcareous rocks, cultivated as ornamental species for rock garden.
Citrus - citrus
Bark smooth, thin, gray-brown to green. Most species have a single trunk, hardwood. Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) has a thick trunk 0.5 - a, 75 m in diameter. Stalk young are edges, green. Stalk elderly are circular in section.
Genus Felicia was named the Cassini AHG in 1818 by Felix, a German official at Regensburg who died in 1846.
Felicia amelloides first cinerary amelloides was named by Linnaeus in 1763 and in 1894 named Felicia amelloides.
Stachys officinalis - a species native to Europe and the Caucasus, grass grows on soils, pastures arid and mountainous deciduous paduride collinear, from 0 to 1800 m altitude.