Oenothera biennis - Luminita
Flowers | Magnoliopsida

Scientific name - Oenothera biennis L.

Oenothera biennis was one of the first species introduced from USA to England and Europe in 1614.

Popular names - enotera, erba degli asses, evening Primrose, sundrops, onagre bisannuelle.

Distribution and Habitat - spontaneous arid places, along railways, on sandy soils, up to 1200 m altitude. Originally from North America and western Europe is naturalized.

Description - herbaceous biennial, in the first year form a rosette of leaves, in the second year forming a strain of 100-150 cm height, covered with glandular hairs, long and glossy. Basal leaves, gathered in rosettes, long petiole, lamina oblong-oval, leather, laced or wavy edge, leaf stems are alternate, short stalks or Sesi, lamina oblong-lanceolata e, the cuneata. Raceme blossom, flowers to subsoara bracteelor (similar but smaller leaves), calyx tubular, oval-lanceolata and 4 sepa recurbate outwards; Corola consisting of 4 petals yellow, 4 cm in diameter, pollination is done by night butterflies and bees. Blooms in June-October. Fruit capsule green, brown-brown at maturity; seminete children without dolls.

Tolerances - tolerate drought rocks and soils.

Requirements - exhibitions sunny, poor soil, well drained.

Propagation - by seeds. Seeds is sown in the greenhouse at temperatures of (18) - (20) ° C. Germination takes place after 4 weeks.

Natural partners and Garden - Achillea, Callirhoe, Geranium, Liatris, Nepeta, Verbena, Salvia, Yucca.

Properties and Uses - entire plant is edible.

Inflorescences have anti-inflammatory properties, antispasmodic, sedative. Be collected in June-July, the beginning of flowering before fruit formation. Thin layers dry in the shade, are preserved in paper bags or cotton.

Sontin 24% oil seeds.

The oil of Oenothera biennis L. is usedit to treat rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, alcolismului, schizophrenia, and premenstrual syndrome.

Recent studies have shown that oil of Oenothera biennis L. is valid in reducing blood pressure to normal, and lower blood cholesterol.

As anti-inflammatory emollient and a decoction is made of 6 g of dried flower in 100 ml of water. It compresses the stakeholders.

You shall not use preparations of Oenothera biennis L. during pregnancy and lactation, epilepsy.

In England and Germany, roots and stems are used in dishes from salads couples.

Rdacinile of Oenothera biennis L. is was used bys American Indian in treating obesity.


Barbara Ellis - Annuals - Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000

Edzard Ernst, Max H. Pittler, Barbara Wider - The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Mosby, 2006

France Royer, Richard Dickinson - Weeds of the Northern U.S. and Canada - The University of Alberta Press, 1999

Heather Boon, Michael Smith - The Complete Natural Medicine Guide to the 50 Most Common Medicinal Herbs - Robert Rose, 2004

James A. Duke - The Green Pharmacy Herbal Handbook - Roda Books, 2000

Peter Loewer - The Evening Garden - Timber Press, 2002

See also
Geranium pratense - beak stork

Herbaceous perennial, stems pubescent, erect, branched dichotomy. Leaves opposite, the parties to lobate-acute, 5-7 lobed, margin evening. Flowers symmetric radiator Corola blue-purple, 5 petals obovata, 2 cm, 5 sepa lanceolata, mucronata, ovary superior, 10 stamens united at the base. Blooms in June-August.

Ursinum Allium L. - Aliu of June, Ramsons, wild garlic

Herbaceous perennial, bulb. Oblung bulb. Leaves 2-3, lanceolata, margin entire, top acute, 30 x 3.6 cm. Flowers white, 6-20 hermaphrodite, in whole or pointed umbela backs, caduca; 6 tepale lanceolata, about 1 cm, 6 stamens, superior ovary, peduncle 2 cm. Blooms in May-June. Fruit capsule.

Verbena tenuisecta

Herbaceous perennial. Procumbenta or decumbenta stem, 10-30 x 30-120 cm, with 4 edges, pear. Leaves tri-or tri-lobate penatsectat, lobes linear, 2-3.5 x 2-3 cm, entire or toothed, top obtuse. Flowers solitary in the armpit bracteelor, blue, purple, red-purple, lilac, or white. Calyx tubular, 6-9 mm needle 5 sepa unequal, linear, top acute.

Ornithogalum umbelatum L. - balusca

Bulbous perennial species. Basal leaves semi-erect, linear, ribbed white-silver center, 25-30 cm long. Raceme with 6-20 corymb blossom type flowers, 2 cm diameter; tepale white with green on the outside, 6 stamens, 1 pistil.

Tithonia rotundifolia

Tithonia rotundifolia - annual species, native to Mexico and Central Aerica, cultivated as ornamental species.

Ageratum houstonianum - rods

Ageratum houstonianum is an ornamental species cultivated for borders, cut flowers or pots. In Europe it is cultivated as ornamental plants in the 1800.


Plants with succulent stems, leaves and flowers unisexuate asymmetric, long pedunculate, grouped dichaziu terminal. ♂ flowers usually are obsolete, consisting of 4 petals oval, two of which are shorter, the ♀ consist of 4 petals equal, persistent.

Silene diclinis

Herbaceous perennial calcifuga, dioica, 30 cm high, caespitosa, densely pubescent. Prostrata strain or upward. Leaves acute seriacee with obvious central rib, lower leaves 9 x 1.5 cm subspatulate to oblong-lanceolata, ribbed, those of the middle stem is elliptical to oblong-lanceolata, united at the base.

Hoffmannia regalis

Evergreen shrub, 1.2 m high. Strain with 4 edges. Leaves opposite, membranous, soft, dark green upper side and reddish on the underside, nervatiune obvious, limb oblong-lanceolata, margin entire, top acute, base cuneata, 8-12 x 20-30 cm. Cime axillary inflorescences. Calyx with 4 SEPA.

Luffa cylindrica

Herbaceous annual, voluble, mono. Strain pentagonal in section, 6 m high. Leaves alternate, 5-7 lobate, the cordata, acuminata peak or acute, margins iregulat needle, 5-7 ribs, limb 15 x 15 cm, 10 cm long, ribbed, hairy. Flowers monoecious, in axillary Cime, long-pedunculate, yellow, 8 cm in diameter.

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