16
Apr
2009
Quercus robur - oak, Tufan
Trees and shrubs | Magnoliopsida
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Scientific name - Quercus robur

Synonyms - Quercus pedunculata

Popular names - oak, Tufan.

Distribution and Habitat - trees met the plain, all over Europe, western Asia and northern Africa.

Description - indigenous trees (Romania), robust 50 m high, 1-2 m stem diameter, crown wide, irregular. Ritidom dark brown, deep furrow. Crown deep and wide, with vigorous branches, units, stretched horizontally, can cover the maximal development of 200-300 sqm. Lujerii annually, vigorous, edge, brown-olive trees, glabra, with small lenticele rare. Buds, ovoizi, brown-glittering, were 4.5 longitudinal edges. Leaves variable in shape and size, are piled to the top Lujerul, to narrow obovata obovata, of 6-20 cm long and 3.10 inches wide at the INGustate and auricle, sometimes asymmetric, Sesia, irregular sinuous lobate, to fidate pinnate, with 4 to 8 pairs of lobes, obtuse or rounded, the middle usually elongated and oblique divergent, usually the senior ovata and pointing forward. Leaf lamina is skin, dark green face, glabra, inside glabra or perishable over ribs. Flowers unisexuat-Mono, the lungpedunculate females, each 3.6 arranged in a cluster. Blooms in April-May. Anemofila pollination. Acorn fruit (acorns), are placed each on a stalk 2.5 shared by 5-6 cm, Acorn is ovoid, elongated, oval or cylindrical, 2-4 cm long, the top acute hemisferica cup, wood, 0.8 to 1.2 cm height is covered with small scales, closely attached, fine, gray pubescent.

Growth rate - increases slowly first years, then grow faster. Longevity, 1000 years for isolated specimens, and 300-400 years for the increasedin groups. Large vegetative regeneration from the shoot. Crown development and ability to produce fertile seeds occurs after 30-40 years. A mature tree produces about 50 000 acorns a year.

Tolerances - support good winter frosts, late frosts but causes more damage. Hang up to (-5) ˚ C.

Requirements - species with large ecological amplitude, varied climate, heliofila.

Oak is a strict tree from the ground, in good condition only vegetand deep soils, permeable, loose, reavene - moist without excess moisture. Depressions where water stagnates for a long time, lacoviste soils, calcareous or acidic, or very sandy, not qualifying for the cultivation of oak. They grow well on soils of alluvial plains, with groundwater access, reddish brown forest soils, typical or podzolic, nisipo-clay.

Propagation - by seeds, it looks to youren wet autumn.

Natural partners and garden - Acer campestre, Fraxinus excelsior, Hedera helix, Oxalis acetosella, Pteridium aquilinum, Rubus fruticosus.

Cultivars and varieties - 'Albomarmorata' - Panasa leaves, giving the tree a curious and unique look, 'Argenteomarginata' - leaves bordered in white, 'Concordia' - shrub or tree size smaller golden-yellow leaves that remain on tree in winter; 'Fastigiata' - tree with narrow crown and erect branches, conical, frequently grown in green spaces for alignment of roads, 'Pendula'.

Properties and Uses - wood is hard, resilient, strong, durable air and water, with duramen reddish brown, large medullary rays, visible annual rings. Of it are made timber joinery and high quality furniture, wooden Masiv and veneers. With its powerful root system, put in

potential value of soil mineral and fluid, providing a highly efficient biological drainage in places with excessive moisture and on the slopes.

Oak bark is rich in tannin, tanning is very appreciated. Ghindele, besides good food

animals can be harnessed in factories alcohol.

Oak is a highly valued ornamental tree and a port which can reach impressive sizes and is used in planning green spaces to form massive forest Landscape style of parks, monuments in groups.

Bark on young branches, harvested at any time of year, most indicated is in March, cut into thin strips and dry in the sun. It has astringent properties, dezintoficante, decongestants, and drop foot.

Leaves harvested in August-September, are dried in the shade or sun, Cementing propertiesente and disinfectants.

Ghindelor Cup has the same properties as the bark.

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