Scientific name - Quillaja saponaria
For the first time was introduced in Britain in 1832 as a botanical specimen.
Synonyms - Quillaia poeppigii, Q. smegmadermos, Q. molinae, Smegmadermos emarginatus.
Popular names - Quillaia, kilaya, quillaja, soapbark tree, Murillo bark, Panama Wood, Bois de Panama.
Distribution and Habitat - originating in South America (Bolivia, Chile and Peru),
Description - evergreen tree, 15-20 m high. Leaves simple, alternate, coriacee, limb oval edge gear, 2.5-5 cm long, short stalks. Flowers arranged in dense corymb, hermaphrodite, pentamere, white, 1.5 cm in diameter, calyx of 5 SEPA. Fruit capsule, containing 10-20 seeds.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - temperatures up to(-8 ͦ C) and drought if in its natural range.
Requirements - soil well drained, fertile, with exhibitions sunny or semi-shady.
Management - new growth may suffer from late frosts. Young plants should be offered protection against strong winds.
Propagation - by seeds in the greenhouse. The new plant is kept in the greenhouse one year. By cuttings, seedlings lignificati a year in November in the greenhouse.
Properties and Uses - bark contains 8-10% saponins, is a cruel and odorless.
Tintura obtained from Quillaja saponaria is recommended for shampoos against hair loss.
Quillaja saponaria is used as a reforestation species for soil arid and ornamental tree.
Myth, Legend and Folklore --
Quillaja saponaria used for over 100 years to extragerarea saponinelor. Saponinele leastrificate are used as an adjuvant for vaccines.
George A. Burdock - Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives - CRC, 1996
Gianfranco Patri - Plants in Cosmetics - Council of Europe, 2003
James A. Duke - Medicinal Plants of Latin America - CRC, 2008
K. Hostettmann, A. Marston - saponins - Cambridge University Press, 1995
Maurice M. Iwu - Handbook of African Medicinal Plants - CRC, 1993
W. Oleszek, A. Marston - saponins in Food, Feedstuffs and Medicinal Plants - Springer, 2000
Plants, women and menstrual pain
Madhuca longifolia Macb.
Deciduu tree, 20 meters high, round crown. Leaves alternate, elliptic, 7.5-13 cm, margin entire, top acute, 10/12 pairs of ribs, stalks 1-2 cm long. Flowers axillary, creamy, fragrant, calyx covered with dense hairs; Corola pale yellow, 1 cm long, 6-12 petals
Prunus laurocerasus L.
Shrub or small tree, 6 m high. Leaves evergreen, alternate, coriacee, lamina lanceolata-obovata, top acute, base cuneata, upper surface glossy green, the bottom is opaque, ribbed clear, ribbed robust short.
Ziziphus jujuba Mill - jujuba
Deciduu tree, 5.12 m high. Stalk annually, thin, 2-3 mm diameter, pale green, glabra, geniculati. Leaves alternate, bright green, elliptical language-lanceolata, margine crenata, top obtuse or emarginat, the round or asymmetrical, 3-5 cm long; nervatiune arch, median rib and a pair of secondary ribs, pale green stalks, 5-7 mm .
Trees and shrubs
Species native to North America, lies at altitudes up to 1500 m in Romania is less common in parks and gardens as ornamental species.
Leaves, branches and bark is an aromatic oil extracts used in medicine.
African Sparmannia - shrub or small tree, native of southern Africa, as a species grown across the globe or outdoor ornamental pot.
Ailanthus altissima - cenuser, false castor
Ailanthus altissima - tree quickly ascending, with large pinnate leaves and terminal flower bouquets green-white.
Tree, 20-30 m tall stem, 30-100 cm diameter, cintorsionata right, conical crown, becoming round-payment. Bark gray to reddish-brown, deeply breazdata. Curved branches, stalk thin, red-brown, sometimes glauca.
Fraxinus excelsior - Ash
Deciduu tree, 30-40 m high, stem right, branched at the top, crown ovoid, large and rare. A young bark is smooth, light gray green and mature forms at the thick crust with a small crack, dark color. Lujerii round, flattened at the bud, glabra, green-olive trees, with dark buds.
Leonotis Leonurus - a species native to southern Africa but cultivated throughout the world as ornamental species in parks and gardens.
Leonotis grecum derived from 'Leon' = lion, and 'Otis' = ear alluding to the shape of the corolla.
Herbaceous perennial, 50-80 cm tall, vigorous root-branched, cylindrical, 5-20 cm long and 1-2.5 cm in diameter. Strain fasciculated, erect, branched in upper parts. Leaves alternate, Terni-compound, the last segment with red ribbed, oblong-elliptic; foliolele are ongust-ovata or elliptic, 8-12 x 2-4 cm. 6.10 cm long stalks
Scrophularia nodosa - perennial species, grows in wet forests, rape and besides water, from 0-1800 m altitude.
Shrub 4 m high, dense crown. Bark brown, rough. Leaves persistent, coriacee, simple, language spatulate, entire edge, top round, the obovata, central rib obvious, and glossy dark green upper side, more open bottom, glabra, arranged in vertical false. Blossom umbela