Scientific name - Quillaja saponaria
For the first time was introduced in Britain in 1832 as a botanical specimen.
Synonyms - Quillaia poeppigii, Q. smegmadermos, Q. molinae, Smegmadermos emarginatus.
Popular names - Quillaia, kilaya, quillaja, soapbark tree, Murillo bark, Panama Wood, Bois de Panama.
Distribution and Habitat - originating in South America (Bolivia, Chile and Peru),
Description - evergreen tree, 15-20 m high. Leaves simple, alternate, coriacee, limb oval edge gear, 2.5-5 cm long, short stalks. Flowers arranged in dense corymb, hermaphrodite, pentamere, white, 1.5 cm in diameter, calyx of 5 SEPA. Fruit capsule, containing 10-20 seeds.
Growth rate - fast.
Tolerances - temperatures up to(-8 ͦ C) and drought if in its natural range.
Requirements - soil well drained, fertile, with exhibitions sunny or semi-shady.
Management - new growth may suffer from late frosts. Young plants should be offered protection against strong winds.
Propagation - by seeds in the greenhouse. The new plant is kept in the greenhouse one year. By cuttings, seedlings lignificati a year in November in the greenhouse.
Properties and Uses - bark contains 8-10% saponins, is a cruel and odorless.
Tintura obtained from Quillaja saponaria is recommended for shampoos against hair loss.
Quillaja saponaria is used as a reforestation species for soil arid and ornamental tree.
Myth, Legend and Folklore --
Quillaja saponaria used for over 100 years to extragerarea saponinelor. Saponinele leastrificate are used as an adjuvant for vaccines.
George A. Burdock - Encyclopedia of Food and Color Additives - CRC, 1996
Gianfranco Patri - Plants in Cosmetics - Council of Europe, 2003
James A. Duke - Medicinal Plants of Latin America - CRC, 2008
K. Hostettmann, A. Marston - saponins - Cambridge University Press, 1995
Maurice M. Iwu - Handbook of African Medicinal Plants - CRC, 1993
W. Oleszek, A. Marston - saponins in Food, Feedstuffs and Medicinal Plants - Springer, 2000
Angelica archangel L. - Root Holy Spirit
Angelica, Arcangel, Angelica di Bohemia, archangel, wild celery, wild parsnip, bai zhi, engelwortel, Angélique, Angelika, Brustwurz, Chora, padaganghwal, erva do Espirito Santo, djagill, anschelika, Epiritu raiz del Santo, the root of the Holy Spirit.
Prunus laurocerasus L.
Shrub or small tree, 6 m high. Leaves evergreen, alternate, coriacee, lamina lanceolata-obovata, top acute, base cuneata, upper surface glossy green, the bottom is opaque, ribbed clear, ribbed robust short.
Ribes uva-crispa - agris, grapes bear
Thorny shrub, 1 m high. Gray-brown bark is exfoliating. Rich stem branched divaricata. Branches long, thin, gray-brown with yellow top, pubescent glabrata in youth and adulthood. Leaves simple, cordiforme, 3-5 lobed, toothed, long stalks
Trees and shrubs
Abutilon darwinii - ornamental shrub originating in S Brazil. In hot climates are grown as ornamental plants in parks and gardens in cold climates are grown in pots for indoor or greenhouse.
Banksia ericifolia, originally from Australia, Blue Mountains. In 1992, Banksia ericifolia was chosen as the official emblem of Sydney.
Citrus - citrus
Bark smooth, thin, gray-brown to green. Most species have a single trunk, hardwood. Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit) has a thick trunk 0.5 - a, 75 m in diameter. Stalk young are edges, green. Stalk elderly are circular in section.
Salix reticulata is a shrub alpine areas grows, from 1800-2700 m altitude in association with Silene acaulis and Dryas octopetala.
Deciduu tree, 9-18 m high, crown iregulata, spherical, pyramid. Bark is thin, green, gray thorns present on the trunk and branches. Leaves alternate, palmately-compound, 5-7 folio, folio elliptic, margin evening, nervatiune pinnate, green, autumn remain ever green. Flowers solitary, axillary, hermaphrodite, pentamere, actinomorfe, pink or white.
Symphoricarpos - Hurmuz
Shrubs decide, prostate or erect, 90-120 cm, originating in the U.S.. Buds scaly, 1.5 mm long. Leaves simple, opposite, short petiolate, 7 cm long. Raceme blossom. Campanulata Flowers in raceme children. Calyx tube slightly globos; Corola campanulata, 4-5 lobes. Fruit drupe, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, S. albus and S. occidentalis fruits white, pink-coral S. orbiculatus fruit. A fruit contains two seeds oblongata.
Tree 15-40 m high, trunk 1 m in diameter. Subsesile leaves or stalks, stalks up to 3 cm long, glabru or glabrescent; language to narrow obovata ovata, ovat-lanceolata, 6-15 x 2.5-7 cm, margins evening, the round, top-acute acuminata.
Centaurea is the third - century genre that many species in Turkey, with 189 taxa. Most of these taxa are endemic in the whole country or a limited area. Value for Centaurea endemism in Turkey is 60%.
Kizildaghensis Centaurea Centaurea is very similar to kotschy. C. kotschy doll is simple, plum, very long compared to the new species has double doll and nauseating.
Pelargonium australe - Muscat
Herbaceous perennial, 50 cm high, sparsely hairy, stems covered with non-glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, lamina ovata, ± circular, 2-9 cm long, 2-8 cm wide, 5-7 lobes, lobes Curl crenata edge, pubescent or ± glabra, 13 cm long stalks. Flowers arranged in umbele, 4.12 flowers pedunculate, 3.10 cm long, pedicel 1-2 cm long. Calyx lobes are 4.7 mm long, 1-6-8 SEPA, 8 mm long.
The new species of Chirita (Gesneriaceae) from Yunnan, China